Your 40s: A Health Guide for Women

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

We can’t deny it: time passes, and our bodies change. Our day-to-day health is kind of like the weather. Like sunny days or passing storms, colds come and go. So do sniffles, aches and pains, and pimples and blisters. Our overall health, though, is more like the climate. It’s an accumulation of lots of different factors – genetics, chance, and the lifestyle choices we make – and has more impact on our lives in the long run.

Some of the factors that affect our health are out of our control, like our family’s medical legacy. If your mother or sister have had breast cancer, you might be more likely to have breast cancer, too. Accidents, injuries, and genetically unforeseen conditions can sideswipe us and set our health off-balance, too.

But we can control the lifestyle choices we make, and these choices certainly do accumulate and either enrich or endanger the quality of health we enjoy through the years of our lives. Decisions you make, like whether to smoke or not, what sort of foods you eat, and how much physical activity you fit into your life, may make or break your health.

Each one of us is a unique specimen, and the aging process will touch us each in different ways. In general, to be the healthiest you at any age, you will need to understand the ways your body may change. You also need to keep up with a few routine preventive health screenings and integrate beneficial habits into your life. Time passes, so make the most of the time you have, no matter what your age.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source:

Whenever we hit a decade-marking age – 10, 20, 30… 40 – we supposedly go through some imagined transition, like we’ve just crossed some important threshold. But what makes 40 feel so different? Why do we perceive 40 as the top of the proverbial “hill,” that hill we supposedly roll down into the valley of old age? In a word: estrogen.

For women, much of the force of 40 comes from the fact that this is the decade in which our fertility declines. It’s the time when many women move through perimenopause, the years leading up to full-blown menopause. Some women skip suddenly to menopause in a matter of 2 years or so, while others note subtle and overt changes across years, even a decade.

During perimenopause, estrogen levels fluctuate, triggering switches in menstrual cycles – they may be lighter, shorter, heavier, or longer, the intervals between periods may change, but they’ll likely be different than they’ve been before. Irregular ovulation makes it much more difficult to become pregnant. While two-thirds of women over the age of 40 experience fertility problems, those who do become pregnant also face higher risk of complications (e.g., high blood pressure or diabetes during pregnancy), miscarriage, birth defects, and low birth weight.

These hormonal shifts can bring menopause-related symptoms, including hot flashes and sleep difficulties with or without night sweats. Mood swings, irritability, and depression, more likely linked to stress or lack of sleep than hormonal changes, may also arise.

Dropping estrogen may mean less vaginal lubrication, which can make sexual intercourse difficult and possibly painful and also make a woman more vulnerable to urinary and vaginal infection.

Estrogen loss has also been linked to bone loss, making it all the more important to support your bones via strength training and adequate calcium intake (1000 mg per day). And as estrogen dips, heart disease risk can increase, due to boosts in bad cholesterol, diminished elasticity of arteries, and accumulation of belly fat.

That belly fat – sometimes jokingly called the “meno-pot” – can increase a woman’s risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. And it is stubborn fat, too. Even with regular exercise, it can be tough to keep it – and your overall weight – in check. That could be because a woman’s caloric needs change as she gets older, even if her activity levels don’t. Basal metabolic rate also declines little by little with each decade of life, so fat-burning requires extra effort.

Fat-burning is not purely cosmetic, and neither are some of the other changes to the appearance of a woman’s body as she ages. Signs of aging may become more apparent, in the form of wrinkles, dry skin, loosened skin around the neck, and crinkles and furrows around the eyes and mouth. Hair may show more white or grey and become thinner.

A woman in her 40s may also note changes in the way her breasts look. The breasts are fatty tissue and contain no muscles. It is an underlying network of connective tissue called the “Cooper’s ligaments” – along with a well-fitted bra – that support breast tissue. As a woman ages, these ligaments become less taut, which leads to sagging.

A whole host of other health risks spring into a woman’s peripheral awareness in this decade, too. Osteoarthritis, a joint disorder that usually affects the hips, knees, feet, and spine, tends to strike women in their 40s and 50s, although it can occur at any age. Risks for breast, ovarian, and uterine cancer rise in this decade, too, with the risk being greater for women in their 50s for breast and ovarian cancers.

Weakened pelvic muscles may play a role in urination issues like incontinence, and in some women a condition called pelvic prolapse is to blame. Women who are obese or have given birth in the past are more susceptible. Excess weight may also make a woman more vulnerable to uterine fibroids, non-cancerous tumours that are more common as a woman moves toward menopause.

With all that is known about living a healthy lifestyle and preventing disease, women need not worry about the whole over-the-hill thing. Read “Your 40s: healthy habits” for the many ways women can make their 40s fantastic.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source:

Eat your age. By this time in your life, you know which foods you love and loathe, but hopefully your mind remains open to new possibilities on your plate. That may mean trying healthy, functional foods you’ve never tried before. And it will likely mean eating less than you’ve ever eaten before. That’s because as you get older, you need fewer calories per day, meaning you should consume fewer calories. Since the body’s metabolism naturally slows down over time, enforcing this calorie cut could help you trim the fat, so to speak, and keep weight from piling on.

Favour functional foods. Do you live to eat or eat to live? Why choose? You can get the best of both if you choose foods that please the palate and emphasize the 40-something must-have nutrients. That way, you won’t have to sweat the details of how many milligrams or micrograms you get of this vitamin or that mineral. A balanced yet varied diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources will likely also be filled with bone-boosting calcium and its companion vitamin D and the fibre you need to support your heart and digestive health.

Know your numbers. Though it’s less stress to not think about the nitty-gritty details of your recommended daily intake of individual nutrients, it doesn’t hurt to have the numbers in the back of your mind – or printed up and stuck on your fridge. Some of the vital vitamin and nutrient numbers to know:

  • Calcium and vitamin D play a big role in minimizing the bone loss that results when, in your 40s and 50s, your body’s estrogen levels fluctuate and eventually fall. Your calcium count should be 1000 mg per day and your vitamin D intake should be 400 IU to 1000 IU per day.
  • Fat should make up no more than 30% of your total daily calorie count. Make the most of that 30% by opting for the “good” fats – mono- and polyunsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, nuts, and olive oil.
  • Your protein tally should be between 10% and 35% of your daily calorie intake.
  • The magic number for fibre: 25 g, the equivalent of about 5½ apples, but it’s more fun to fit in fibre from an assortment of foods, like from beans, popcorn, raisins, a variety of veggies, and whole-grain breads. In general, a healthy adult needs 21 to 38 grams of fibre a day.

Be a body in motion. You may struggle to find time to fit in regular exercise. But every time you do manage to eke out even the shortest workout, your body will thank you a million times over. Just think about how good a burst of physical activity can feel – how you sleep better, how you handle stress with a more level head, and how you buzz with strong, focused energy for work or for play (of all sorts). And of course, a mix of aerobic exercise and strength training will help you maintain a healthy weight, reduce your risk of many chronic conditions, and preserve and build bone strength. Switch old, tired routines for a fresh approach. Trade your jog for an evening at the yoga studio – or vice versa!

Put pickles on the side. If you suddenly find yourself caught between parenting your children and caring for the needs of your aging parents, you’re a part of the so-called “sandwich generation.” For those stuck in the middle, stress and obligations can quickly pile on. Finding time for you can be a real pickle. So, put the pickles on the side. Set aside a few moments within each week in which you can focus on yourself. You could use your “me-time” to indulge in a vice or put your heart into healthy, relaxing, rejuvenating past-times. Or you might make a to-do list for the sole purpose of crossing off the things you’ve already accomplished.

Let your beauty shine through. Some signs of age reflect the joy of life lived well – crinkly crows-feet around smiling eyes, lines of laughter around the lips. Others reveal the stress and wear of the tougher moments, like that deep furrow between your eyes or that wrinkled “worry brow” you’ve got going on. Rather than give in to the temptation to conceal these visible reminders of age – with heavy makeup, or a nip, a tuck, a paralyzing shot to the temple – find ways to highlight your true, actual beauty. Keep your skin supple by drinking plenty of water and eating foods rich in antioxidants. Add antioxidant-infused skincare products to help restore skin that has been marred by sun or stress. Look for products with ingredient names like CoQ10 and vitamins A, C, and E. Apply moisturizer and exfoliate regularly to slough off dull, dry skin. Shield your skin from further solar damage with moisturizing, daily-wear sunscreen. If you feel your skin needs extra help, ask your doctor about prescription
medications that may reduce appearance of brown spots, rough skin, and fine wrinkles caused by skin damage.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source:

Check out this check-up checklist and stay on top of the tests and examinations you need all through your 40s.

  • Bone density test: When you hit your 40s, you don’t need to worry too much about osteoporosis – that is, unless you fall into particular risk categories. Taking certain medications may speed bone loss, and certain medical conditions can compromise bone density as well. Ask your doctor if you are concerned about osteoporosis, especially if it runs in your family.
  • Diabetes screening: If you are in your 40s, you may be at risk for type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can screen your risk by testing your levels of hemoglobin A1C (a blood test that reflects your average blood glucose levels over the last 3 months) or your blood glucose levels. How often you need to be screened for diabetes will depend on your risk of diabetes. If you are overweight, your risk of diabetes will probably be higher and you should be tested earlier and/or more often. Ask your doctor how often you should be screened for diabetes.
  • Blood pressure and cholesterol: You’re not at too much risk of elevated levels now, especially if you’re following healthy heart habits like exercising regularly, eating a nutritious diet, and not smoking. Any time you go in for any health care visit, your blood pressure will be gauged, and you should get a cholesterol work-up every few years. If you fall into certain risk groups, your doctor may screen your levels more frequently or at an earlier age. You may be at risk if you have diabetes or a large waist circumference, or if you smoke.
  • Pap test and pelvic exam: By the time you’ve hit 20, you should be having routine pelvic exams and Pap tests every 2 to 3 years. Pap tests screen for cervical cancer, while the pelvic exam allows your health care provider to examine your cervix and vagina and to get a sense of the health of your uterus. Your health care provider might also look for signs of infections.
  • Breast exam: Breast cancer is a very common cancer among women. Your health care provider may do a clinical breast exam when you go in for your annual Pap test and pelvic exam. Ask your doctor if you should have a clinical breast exam and, if so, how often. You should also become familiar with the look and feel of your breasts so you know what’s normal for you. If you fall into a high-risk category for breast cancer, your doctor may suggest you have mammograms in your 40s. Otherwise, mammograms should be done every 2 or 3 years from age 50 to 74 (your doctor will advise you if you still need mammograms after age 74).
  • Skin check: Anyone at any age can develop skin cancer. In addition to minimizing your risk with healthy sun habits, your health care provider should do a thorough skin check to screen for new or changed moles or marks. You can also do a skin check yourself (or with a helpful partner). Remember the letters ABCDE when looking at skin growths:
    • Asymmetry (not round)
    • Border (irregular)
    • Colour (uneven, changing, different from other moles)
    • Diameter (larger than a pencil eraser)
    • Evolving (changing in size, shape, or colour)

    If anything seems out of the ordinary or alarming, contact your doctor.

  • Dental check-ups: Visit your dentist for preventive check-ups and routine cleanings. The frequency of visits will really depend on individual needs, though most authorities on the subject recommend at least once or twice a year.
  • Eye exams: Even if your vision is 20/20, you should have your eyes examined every 1 to 2 years. After all, optometrists check for other things besides how good your vision is – like signs of glaucoma. If you have a condition like diabetes or high blood pressure, or a family history of vision problems, your optometrist will let you know if you need more frequent eye exams and check-ups.
  • Immunizations: You think shots are just for kids? Certain vaccinations you received as a child may need to be updated, while other immunizations are available that can protect you from needless health issues. Ask your doctor if you’re due for any of these:
    • Get shots to protect you from measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) if you’ve never had the vaccination before. Should you find yourself in certain risk situations, you’d also need the MMR vaccination. Those risky situations include working in health care, attending college, and travelling to certain countries.
    • The tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for anyone whose last Tdap shot was more than 10 years ago. Others who should get the Tdap include those who work in close contact with infants, those who plan on becoming pregnant, and those who have received a “dirty” wound (e.g., from a rusted nail).
    • Each year, get the influenza vaccine. The flu shot is especially important if you have medical conditions that put you at risk of complications from the flu.
    • Considering world travel? Consider being vaccinated against meningitis and hepatitis A and B, and consult with a travel clinician or your doctor in regards to other risks of particular destinations.
    • If you never had chickenpox as a youngster, you should get vaccinated against it now. And if you’re unsure whether you did, go ahead and get the vaccination, just in case. It’s a good idea to get it, too, if you’re hoping to get pregnant sometime in the future and don’t know if you’re immune to chickenpox. Hold off, though, if you’re already pregnant (or hope to be within several weeks of vaccination).

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source:

10 Small Lifestyle Changes For A Healthier You

Posted in Healthy lifestyle
10 Small Lifestyle Changes For A Healthier You

10 Small Lifestyle Changes For A Healthier You

Guest post by Evolve MMA, Asia’s premier championship brand for martial arts. It has the most number of World Champions on the planet. Named as the #1 ranked martial arts organization in Asia by CNN, Yahoo! Sports, FOX Sports, Evolve MMA is the best Singapore BJJ gym.

We all want to live better, healthier lives. When we discover that stroke of motivation, we go out there and we go hard. We hit the martial arts gym with enthusiasm, cut back drastically on junk food, and start eating lean chicken breast and vegetables every single day.

However, we all reach the proverbial brick wall at a hundred miles an hour. The faster we storm out of the gates, the harder the impact.

You often hear that fitness is not a sprint, it’s a marathon. That means it’s not about how hard you go from the opening bell. It’s about small changes over time, that add up to big improvements in the long run.

The transition from living an unhealthy life to building healthy habits can be achieved through tiny cumulative changes. Healthy living doesn’t have to be an extreme change. You can start by making small alterations to the way you live your life. These small changes may seem inconsequential to you at first, but they will definitely make an impact in the long run.

Let’s take a look at a few things you can try that could have a drastic effect on your health and fitness. Today, Evolve Daily shares 10 small lifestyle changes for a healthier you.

 1) Take a short walk every day

It may not be possible to always be at the gym. People are incredibly busy these days, and we always have somewhere we need to be, or something we need to do. The important thing for our health and fitness is finding every opportunity to move.

That’s where walking is perfect. Strive to take even just a short walk every day, whether it’s replacing a part of your daily commute with walking, or taking a quick stroll in the park. Walking is both refreshing and therapeutic.

If you can get yourself a fitness tracker and complete 10,000 steps every day, it’s ideal. You can also occasionally skip the elevator and use the stairs. You have legs, so use them.

2) Limit your consumption of packaged food

packaged food and snacks

It’s hard to tell exactly what’s inside packaged food, and that’s just the truth. Even when you do your due diligence and study the nutrition labels and list of ingredients, it’s hard to discern what you’re putting into your body.

Usually, these types of foods come packed with sugar, sodium, or unnecessary fat. Plus, they are often loaded with preservatives. And that’s never good in any case.

If food comes in a box, try your best to stay away from it.

3) Cook your own meals at home 

Cooking at home gives you absolute control over what goes into your food and what you consume. You know exactly how much salt, sugar, and everything else that goes into your meals.

Don’t be daunted by the kitchen. There are tons of amazing and easy-to-make recipes on the internet that are both tasty and healthy, and you can tweak the recipes to your liking. If you’re not used to cooking, it may be challenging at first. But like anything else, you get better with it over time.

 4) Go for the grain

Substitute your refined carbs with whole grain. It doesn’t taste that much different, and it’s way healthier. It can help you stick to your diet by making you fuller faster and give you that much-needed fiber for good digestion. Diets rich in whole grain foods are found to reduce the risk of lifestyle-related illnesses as well.

 5) Add more protein to your diet


Protein takes a while to digest compared to carbs. It’s harder to break down and takes more energy to metabolize. The result is that you’re fuller for longer, and despite carbs and protein having the same density of calories per gram, protein actually gives you fewer available calories. Knowing this, it suddenly makes sense why diet products are always high in protein.

 6) Enjoy your dessert

Have your cake and eat it too? This may sound counterintuitive, but take a moment to consider: why do people fail to adhere to their diets? 

Well, a large part of it is definitely because diets are miserable when you think about the food you’re never allowed to eat. When people stick to a strict diet, oftentimes, they fail to realize that it doesn’t mean giving up the things they love. 

Stick a dessert in your meal schedule at least once per week to break the monotony of your diet and keep you looking forward to something, and make sure to indulge and be mindful of every bite.

7) Drink more water

alex silva drinking waterHave you ever had a hunger that went away after you drank water? If you haven’t, it’s actually a common thing that happens. Try drinking some water when you feel your cravings flaring up. Your body needs water to function, and much of your energy stores cannot be effectively utilized when you are dehydrated, which leads to untimely hunger, which can derail you from your nutritional and weight loss goals.

 8) Bring your own water bottle

Stop buying bottled water whenever you need to drink. It may not seem like much, but the cost definitely compounds to a considerable amount that is, quite frankly, an unnecessary expense that could be avoided. 

You’re also tempted to ditch bottled water and pick out a sugar-laden sports drink instead, especially when you don’t really need it. Having your own water bottle eliminates this risk. It’s also eco-friendly, and seeing as the earth’s own health impacts us all, greener practices indirectly contribute to your health as well.

 9) Learn to love basic black coffee

Coffee is a stimulant that increases productivity and aids weight loss by boosting metabolism, but definitely not when topped off by heaps and heaps of sugar and extra dairy. Choose black coffee for a better, much healthier alternative. It may not be everyone’s favorite cup in the beginning, but you’ll definitely grow to love it. Black coffee brings out the beans’ natural flavors.

Stay away from blended coffee. These drinks are calorie grenades. Just one cup could set you back on all that progress that you’ve made in an entire day.

 10) Get more sleep


If you’re doing everything you can in terms of diet and workout and still aren’t losing any weight, then you might want to take a look at your sleeping patterns. 

Lack of sleep is notorious for stalling weight loss and even causing weight gain in some cases. Make sure to have at least seven hours of sleep, and you’ll immediately notice a noticeable boost in mood, mental performance, and even physical performance. 

Sleep is so important. If you’re in a pickle and need to choose between an hour of gym time and an extra hour of sleep, because that extra hour is all you have, choose sleep. That’s how important it is.



Developments during the 20th century – Developments in public health and welfare – WJEC – GCSE History Revision – WJEC

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

The 20th century saw greater improvements and more rapid changes in people’s health than ever before. The years 1906 to 1914 saw huge social change. The Liberal Governments turned their back on laissez-faire

Their decision was the result of a number of events, which highlighted the fact that in many parts of Britain ill health still remained a serious problem.

  • A report in 1889 by Charles Booth showed that 35 percent of Londoners were living in abject poverty.
  • Another report in 1901 by Seebohm Rowntree, found that half the population of York were living in poverty.
  • During the Boer War of 1899–1902 a third of those who volunteered to fight were rejected because of poor health.

When they got into power in 1906 the Liberal Governments introduced a range of social reforms designed to wage implacable warfare against poverty and squalidness. As well as the National Insurance Act, the Liberals introduced other measures.

Year Measure
1906 Free school meals for children from poor families gave children one good meal per day.
1907 School medical inspections meant health visitors could keep an eye on children’s health.
1908 Old-Age Pensions Act removed the fear of old age.
1909 Minimum wages in certain industries gave many poorer workers a living wage.

In the 1909 budget, David Lloyd George increased taxes on the rich (plutocrats) to help pay for the Liberal’s social reforms.

Cartoon of David Lloyd George brandishing a gun, dressed as a highwayman with a horse holding a box labelled 'Old-Age Pension Fund'. Text at the bottom of the image reads The Philanthropic Highwayman.

A cartoon from 1909 with Lloyd George as the “philanthropic highwayman”. He is shown taking money from the rich, not for himself, but to help pay for old age pensions.

At the end of World War One, David Lloyd George, who was then prime minister, promised to create a land fit for heroes to live in. In 1919, a new Housing Act announced plans for councils to build 500,000 new homes within three years.

Economic problems meant that only 200,000 were completed. However, for the first time, many that were built had electricity, running water, bathrooms, indoor toilets and gardens. By 1939 over one million council houses had been built across the UK.

Following the damage and destruction of World War Two, the Labour Government had another million council houses built between 1945 and 1951. The problem of poor housing remained. Since the 1960s surveys have been conducted in Wales to assess the condition of the housing stock. In 1968, 10 per cent of our houses were unfit for human habitation. Though improvement grants and new houses have reduced this percentage, Wales still has more unfit housing than England.

There have also been other government efforts to improve public health.

In 1952, the killer smog

More recently laws have been passed to reduce emissions from greenhouse gases, eg carbon dioxide and methane.

In the 1960s there was a huge slum clearance effort. The slums were often replaced with tower blocks. Some people were moved into new towns, eg Milton Keynes, which were built to get people out of old, dirty, overcrowded industrial towns. Houses had modern facilities and the towns had plenty of green spaces for public use.

The Labour Government of 1945-1951 also created the NHS in 1948. As well as running hospitals and local health centres, the NHS promotes public health through a range of activities.

  • Health workers go into schools to speak to students, eg to give vaccinations or talks on sex education.
  • Health visitors visit new mothers to give help and advice on childcare.
  • There have been all sorts of campaigns to promote healthier lifestyles, such as giving up smoking (Smokefree), eating healthily (Change4Life and 5-a-day) and taking exercise (Walking for health).
  • Other campaigns have encouraged personal hygiene, eg regular brushing of teeth, checking for nits, as a way to better health.
Poster with a man blowing his nose in a handkerchief with text: A handkerchief in time saves nine and helps to keep the nation fighting fit. Coughs and Sneezes spread diseases.

A poster from the 1940s encouraging the public to use a handkerchief when they sneezed

Reservoirs in Wales

Controversy arose from the loss or displacement of Welsh speaking farming communities between 1880 and the 1960s, when valleys were flooded to provide drinking water to Liverpool and the Midlands.

Lake Vyrnwy

The Liverpool Corporation wanted to improve their water supply so, between 1881 and 1888, the largest masonry dam in Britain was built in north Wales in the Vyrnwy Valley to supply Liverpool with fresh water.

Elan Valley reservoirs

Birmingham Corporation organised a reservoir to be built in the Elan Valley to the west of Rhayader in mid Wales to ensure clean drinking water for the Midlands.

Over a hundred Welsh occupants were moved but only landowners received compensation. It was officially opened by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra on 21 July 1904. The scheme is still supplying Birmingham’s water.

Llyn Celyn

In 1955, Liverpool Corporation chose Tryweryn to the north of Bala for a new reservoir for their water supply.

This was a Welsh speaking community of 12 farms, a school, chapel and post office. Despite major protests, on 1 August 1957 the Liverpool Corporation Act was passed, and the village was flooded to create a reservoir.

Improvements in life expectancy

During the 20th and early 21st centuries, huge strides have been made in public health and hygiene. Life expectancy

However, these statistics hide huge divisions within the UK. A report by NHS Wales in 2011 stated that:

Men in the least deprived communities of Wales can expect to live in good health for 19 years longer than those in more deprived parts of the country. Similarly, the difference for women is 18 years… This report shows that people in poorer areas of Wales not only die sooner, but also spend more of their shorter lives in poorer health.NHS Wales

Despite great progress in the last hundred years, huge problems remain. As Britain has grown wealthier the diets of many people have become less healthy, with a huge increase in obesity and diseases associated with it, eg diabetes.

In spite of the many health campaigns many people still smoke, drink too much alcohol and fail to take enough exercise. Poverty and poor housing, though it is not as acute as in past centuries, also continues to have an adverse effect on public health.

Bone health: Tips to keep your bones healthy

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Bone health: Tips to keep your bones healthy

Protecting your bone health is easier than you think. Understand how diet, physical activity and other lifestyle factors can affect your bone mass.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Bones play many roles in the body — providing structure, protecting organs, anchoring muscles and storing calcium. While it’s important to build strong and healthy bones during childhood and adolescence, you can take steps during adulthood to protect bone health, too.

Why is bone health important?

Your bones are continuously changing — new bone is made and old bone is broken down. When you’re young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone, and your bone mass increases. Most people reach their peak bone mass around age 30. After that, bone remodeling continues, but you lose slightly more bone mass than you gain.

How likely you are to develop osteoporosis — a condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle — depends on how much bone mass you attain by the time you reach age 30 and how rapidly you lose it after that. The higher your peak bone mass, the more bone you have “in the bank” and the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age.

What affects bone health

A number of factors can affect bone health. For example:

  • The amount of calcium in your diet. A diet low in calcium contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures.
  • Physical activity. People who are physically inactive have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do their more-active counterparts.
  • Tobacco and alcohol use. Research suggests that tobacco use contributes to weak bones. Similarly, regularly having more than one alcoholic drink a day for women or two alcoholic drinks a day for men may increase the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Sex. You’re at greater risk of osteoporosis if you’re a woman, because women have less bone tissue than do men.
  • Size. You’re at risk if you are extremely thin (with a body mass index of 19 or less) or have a small body frame because you might have less bone mass to draw from as you age.
  • Age. Your bones become thinner and weaker as you age.
  • Race and family history. You’re at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you’re white or of Asian descent. In addition, having a parent or sibling who has osteoporosis puts you at greater risk — especially if you also have a family history of fractures.
  • Hormone levels. Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. In women, bone loss increases dramatically at menopause due to dropping estrogen levels. Prolonged absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) before menopause also increases the risk of osteoporosis. In men, low testosterone levels can cause a loss of bone mass.
  • Eating disorders and other conditions. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women. In addition, weight-loss surgery and conditions such as celiac disease can affect your body’s ability to absorb calcium.
  • Certain medications. Long-term use of corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, cortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone, is damaging to bone. Other drugs that might increase the risk of osteoporosis include aromatase inhibitors to treat breast cancer, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, methotrexate, some anti-seizure medications, such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and phenobarbital, and proton pump inhibitors.

What can I do to keep my bones healthy?

You can take a few simple steps to prevent or slow bone loss. For example:

  • Include plenty of calcium in your diet. For adults ages 19 to 50 and men ages 51 to 70, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day. The recommendation increases to 1,200 mg a day for women age 51 and older and for men age 71 and older.

    Good sources of calcium include dairy products, almonds, broccoli, kale, canned salmon with bones, sardines and soy products, such as tofu. If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet, ask your doctor about supplements.

  • Pay attention to vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. For adults ages 19 to 70, the RDA of vitamin D is 600 international units (IUs) a day. The recommendation increases to 800 IUs a day for adults age 71 and older.

    Good sources of vitamin D include oily fish, such as salmon, trout, whitefish and tuna. Additionally, mushrooms, eggs and fortified foods, such as milk and cereals, are good sources of vitamin D. Sunlight also contributes to the body’s production of vitamin D. If you’re worried about getting enough vitamin D, ask your doctor about supplements.

  • Include physical activity in your daily routine. Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, jogging, and climbing stairs, can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss.
  • Avoid substance abuse. Don’t smoke. If you are a woman, avoid drinking more than one alcoholic drink each day. If you are a man, avoid drinking more than two alcoholic drinks a day.

Enlist your doctor’s help

If you’re concerned about your bone health or your risk factors for osteoporosis, including a recent bone fracture, consult your doctor. He or she might recommend a bone density test. The results will help your doctor gauge your bone density and determine your rate of bone loss. By evaluating this information and your risk factors, your doctor can assess whether you might be a candidate for medication to help slow bone loss.


Disability and Health Healthy Living

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

People with disabilities need health care and health programs for the same reasons anyone else does—to stay well, active, and a part of the community.

Having a disability does not mean a person is not healthy or that he or she cannot be healthy. Being healthy means the same thing for all of us—getting and staying well so we can lead full, active lives. That means having the tools and information to make healthy choices and knowing how to prevent illness.

For people with disabilities, it also means knowing that health problems related to a disability can be treated. These problems, also called secondary conditions, can include pain, depression, and a greater risk for certain illnesses.

To be healthy, people with disabilities require health care that meets their needs as a whole person, not just as a person with a disability. Most people with or without disabilities can stay healthy by learning about and living healthy lifestyles.

Doctor standing behind a man with her hands on his shoulders

Leading a Long and Healthy Life

Although people with disabilities sometimes have a harder time getting and staying healthy than people without disabilities, there are things we can all do to get and stay healthy.

Tips for leading a long and healthy life:

For more information:

Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2005-2014: According to the report, smoking prevalence higher among those reporting having a disability compared with those who reported no disability.

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities pdf icon

Getting the Best Possible Health Care

People with disabilities must get the care and services they need to help them be healthy.

If you have a disability, there are many things you can do to make sure you are getting the best possible health care:

  • Know your body, how you feel when you are well and when you’re not.
  • Talk openly with your health care professional about your concerns.
  • Find health care professionals that you are comfortable with in your area.
  • Check to be sure you can physically get into your health care professional’s office, such as having access to ramps or elevators if you use an assistive device like a wheelchair or scooter.
  • Check to see if your health care professional’s office has the equipment you need, such as an accessible scale or examining table.
  • Ask for help from your health care professional’s office staff if you need it.
  • Think about your questions and health concerns before you visit your health care professional so that you’re prepared.
  • Bring your health records with you.
  • Take a friend with you if you are concerned you might not remember all your questions or what is said by the health care professional.
  • Get it in writing. Write down, or have someone write down for you, what is said by the health care professional.

Physical Activity

Adults of all shapes, sizes, and abilities can benefit from being physically active, including those with disabilities. For important health benefits, all adults should do both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities.  Regular aerobic physical activity increases heart and lung functions; improves daily living activities and independence; decreases chances of developing chronic diseases; and improves mental health.

Adults with disabilities should try to get at least 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (i.e., brisk walking; wheeling oneself in a wheelchair) or at least 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity (i.e., jogging, wheelchair basketball) or a mix of both moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activities each week. A rule of thumb is that 1 minute of vigorous-intensity activity is about the same as 2 minutes of moderate-intensity activity. They should avoid inactivity as some physical activity is better than none.

Muscle-strengthening activities should include moderate and high intensity, and involve all major muscle groups on two or more days a week (i.e., working with resistance-band, adapted yoga) as these activities provide additional health benefits. All children and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity each day.

If a person with a disability is not able to meet the physical activity guidelines, they should engage in regular physical activity based on their abilities and should avoid inactivity. Adults with disabilities should talk to their healthcare provider about the amounts and types of physical activity that are appropriate for their abilities.

Boy on dad's shoulder

Tips for getting fit:

  • Talk to your doctor about how much and what kind of physical activity is right for you.
  • Find opportunities to increase physical activity regularly in ways that meet your needs and abilities.
  • Start slowly, based on your abilities and fitness level (e.g. be active for at least 10 minutes at a time, slowly increase activity over several weeks, if necessary).
  • Avoid inactivity.  Some activity is better than none!

To learn more on physical activity among adults with disabilities:

CDC Vital Signs

CDC Disability and Physical Activity

Healthy Weight & Obesity Briefs

CDC Physical Activity

Abuse and Violence of People with Disabilities

People with disabilities are at greater risk for abuse, violence, and harm than people without disabilities. This is called victimization. Victimization is harm caused on purpose. It is not an “accident” and can happen anywhere. The two most common places where victimization occurs are in hospitals and homes.

“For some years, I could not stand up or stretch my arms above my head. I had to use a walker. My wife and I started using a fitness club regularly. Now, I can again walk upright and stretch my arms over my head. It’s made a difference in my life, like being able to put the dishes in cupboards.”

Victimization includes:

  • Physical violence with or without a weapon.
  • Sexual violence of any kind, including rape.
  • Emotional abuse, including verbal attacks or being humiliated.
  • Neglect of personal needs for daily life, including medical care or equipment.

In the United States, people with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more likely to be victimized than people without disabilities. Children with disabilities are more than twice as likely to be victimized as children without disabilities. Researchers found that 11.5% of adults with a disability were victims of sexual assault vs. 3.9% of adults without disabilities. In addition, 13.0% of people with disabilities were victims of attempted sexual assault compared to 5.7% without disabilities.123

Victims usually know the person who harms them. They can be health care workers, intimate partners, or family members. More men than women cause harm to people with disabilities. If you or someone you love is being victimized, there is help available.

For more information:

CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control

List of organizations working to prevent victimization

Victimization of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury or Other Disabilities: A Fact Sheet for Friends and Familiespdf icon

Victimization of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury or Other Disabilities: A Fact Sheet for Professionalspdf icon

Sexual Health and Sexuality

Health care professionals and people with disabilities should feel comfortable talking to each other about sexual health and sexuality. People with disabilities can ask their doctor questions about sexuality, sexual functioning, contraceptives, and reproductive concerns.

For more information:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Healthy Pregnancy

Sexual Violence

Tips for Communicating with Female Patients with Intellectual Disabilities (ID)

Mental Health and Well-Being

For everyone, overall mental health and well-being is very important. Mental health is how we think, feel and act as we cope with life. People need to feel good about their life and value themselves.

All people, including those with disabilities might feel isolated from others, or have low self-esteem. They may be depressed. There are different ways to treat depression. Exercise may be effective for some people. Counseling, medication, or both might also be needed.

Everyone feels worried, anxious, sad or stressed sometimes. If these feelings do not go away and they interfere with your daily life, you should talk with other people about your feelings, such as a family member or health care professional.

For more information:

Teen Mental Healthexternal icon

Adult Mental Healthexternal icon

Depression in the Workplace

Leading a Long and Healthy Life pdf icon


  1. Petersilia JR. Crime victims with developmental disabilities: a review essay. Criminal Justice & Behavior 2001;28(6):655–94.
  2. Sobsey D, Mansell S. An international perspective on patterns of sexual assault and abuse of people with disabilities. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health 1994;7(2):153–78.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006.

Secrets to a Long Life, According to People Who Lived to 100

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Misao Okawa was the world’s oldest living person until her death at age 117 in 2015. “Eating delicious things is a key to my longevity,” she said.

Misao Okawa celebrating her 115 birthday.

Misao Okawa celebrating her 115 birthday.

Buddhika Weerasinghe/Getty Images

Misao Okawa was born in 1898 in Japan. Japan has the most centenarians in the world. According to the Japan Times, in 2018, the country had 69,785 people over 100, nearly 90% of whom were women.

In 2014, Guinness World Records recognized Okawa as the world’s oldest living person. She cited eating sushi and getting a good night’s sleep as the reasons for her long life.



Emma Morano was the world’s oldest living person from 2016 until her death at age 117 in 2017. She ate two raw eggs a day and loved cookies.

Emma Morano in Verbania, Italy, in 2016.

Emma Morano in Verbania, Italy, in 2016.

Olivier Morin/AFP/Getty Images

Morano was born on 29 November, 1899, in the Piedmont region of Italy. She told the BBC that she believed her long life was partly due to genetics, but she also ate a diet of three eggs a day, two of them raw, for more than 90 years.

Morano didn’t have an easy life — her only son died at just 6 months old, and she had an abusive marriage. She believed leaving her marriage in 1938 contributed to her longevity. She told the New York Times, “I didn’t want to be dominated by anyone.”

Morano was alive in three centuries, and before her death on April 15, 2017, she was believed to be the last living person born in the 19th century.

116-year-old Gertrude Weaver said her secret to long life was kindness. “Treat people right and be nice to other people the way you want them to be nice to you,” she said.

Gertrude Weaver in Camden, Arkansas, on July 3, 2014.

Gertrude Weaver in Camden, Arkansas, on July 3, 2014.

Danny Johnston/AP Images

Weaver was the oldest living person in the United States from her 116th birthday on July 4, 2014, until her death in her home state of Arkansas in April 2015. She was also the world’s oldest living person for less than a week before her death. 

She told Time that her secret to long life was kindness, but she also attributed it to not drinking or smoking, and getting plenty of sleep. Additionally, she didn’t have any chronic health conditions, a rarity for people of her age. 

At 109, Jessie Gallan was Scotland’s oldest living person. Her secret to long life was avoiding men. “They’re just more trouble than they’re worth,” she said.

jessie gallan

Jessie Gallan was Scotland’s oldest resident.

STV News

Gallan was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1906, and died in March, 2015, at age 109. 

In an interview with STV News, she said, “I also made sure that I got plenty of exercise, ate a nice warm bowl of porridge every morning, and have never gotten married.”

Alexander Imich was a Holocaust survivor and the world’s oldest man before his death in June 2014. He credited his longevity to “good genes” and exercise.

Alexander Imich at his home in New York City on May 9, 2014.

Alexander Imich at his home in New York City on May 9, 2014.

Mike Segar/Reuters

Imich was born in Poland on February 4, 1903. He moved to the United States in 1951 after surviving the Holocaust and a Soviet gulag. 

He told the New York Times that he believed his long life came down to genetics and exercise. “I was a gymnast. Good runner, a good springer. Good javelin, and I was a good swimmer,” he said. He also never drank alcohol, which he believed was another contributing factor. 

He was given the title of world’s oldest man by Guinness World Records at 111 years old on May 8, 2014, and held the title until his death on June 8, 2014.


Duranord Veillard lived to 111, and was married for over 80 years. He credited healthy eating and doing five to seven push-ups daily.

Duranord Veillard at his home in New Jersey.

Duranord Veillard at his home in Rockland County, New York.

Lohud News

Veillard was born on February 28, 1907, in Haiti. He was married in 1932, and he and his wife, Jeanne, moved to the United States in 1968. 

USA Today interviewed the Veillards, one of the oldest living couples, in 2015. At the time, Jeanne was almost 105 and Duranord was about to celebrate his 108th birthday.

He told USA today that his secret was waking up early each day to do “five to seven” push-ups before eating a healthy breakfast of oatmeal and fresh fruit. The couple would also have fish and vegetables for lunch and dinner. 

Duranord died at age 111 in June 2018, and Jeanne died just a few months later, in November of that year, at age 108.

Jeralean Talley was the world’s oldest person before her death in 2015. She said that her faith and pork helped her reach such an old age.

Jeralean Talley at the Ford Freedom Awards in 2015.

Jeralean Talley at the Ford Freedom Awards in 2015.

Monica Morgan/WireImage/Getty Images

Jeralean Talley was born in Montrose, Georgia, in 1899. She moved to Michigan in the 1930s, where she spent the rest of her life until she passed on June 17, 2015. 

According to USA Today, Talley was very religious, and her friends and family said she lived by the motto treat people how you want to be treated.

She told Time that her secret to a long life included her devout faith, as well as a diet rich in pork, including pigs’ feet and ears.

Bernardo LaPallo lived beyond 100 and said “obedience and moderation” contributed to his long life. He also said rubbing his “body down with olive oil” and crossword puzzles kept him healthy.

Bernando LaPallo, right, greets Derek Jeter in 2013.

Bernando LaPallo, right, greets Derek Jeter in 2013.

Paul J. Bereswill/AP Images

Bernardo LaPallo’s family believe he was born on August 17, 1901, in Vitoria, Brazil. Both his parents lived long lives — his father reached 99 and mother lived to 105. He died on 19 December, 2015, at age 114.

LaPallo was known for his healthy lifestyle books, where he shared how he lived such a long and healthy life.

In an interview with National Geographic, he said, “My longevity is due to my obedience and moderation. I have based my life on following what my father told me.” He also said eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, going to bed early, and exercising kept him healthy. 

He also shared his daily routine: “I get up at 3:30 or 4 in the morning, go for my walk, take my shower, rub my body down with olive oil, make my breakfast. Stress is a killer, my daddy told me that. It’s important to take time to relax and exercise your brain, such as by doing crossword puzzles.”

Jiroemon Kimura was the world’s oldest person until his death in 2013. His slogan was “eat less and live long.” He also kept sharp by reading the news daily.

Jiroemon Kimura celebrating being the oldest man in Japan in 2009.

Jiroemon Kimura celebrating being the oldest man in Japan in 2009.

The Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images

Jiroemon Kimura was born on April 19, 1897, in Kyoto, Japan. In 2012, at 115, he became the world’s oldest living person and held the title until his death on June 12, 2013.

In an interview with the Guardian, he said his secret to a long life was watching his food portion sizes, waking early in the day, and reading newspapers. 

He told Patch a few other ways he kept healthy for so long. “It’s important to make daily exercise a discipline,” he said. He also cited overcoming adversity as something that made him strong. “After every storm, peace always comes,” he said.

According to his documents, Mbah Gotho lived to be 146. He said he had “a long life because I have people that love me looking after me.”

Mbah Gotho at his home in Java, Indonesia, in 2016.

Mbah Gotho at his home in Java, Indonesia, in 2016.

Jefta Images/Barcroft Media/Getty Images

According to his papers and reportedly verified by the Indonesian government, Mbah Gotho was born in December 1870. However, the country only started recording births in 1900, so the topic remains up for debate.

Gotho told the BBC that his long life was due to his loving family. He was a heavy smoker until his death, and outlived four wives, 10 siblings, and all of his children.

Reaching 122, Jeanne Calment is officially recorded as the oldest person to have ever lived. She credited her long life to olive oil, cigarettes, chocolate, and wine.

Jeanne Calment in France in 1996.

Jeanne Calment in France in 1996.

Pascal Parrot/Sygma/Getty Images

Calment is believed to have been born in Arles, France, in 1875. However, some doubt has been cast on this date, as many researchers cite her age at the time of death as “statistically impossible.” Nevertheless, she remains the official oldest person to have lived.

According to the New Yorker, she smoked for most of her life, only quitting at 117, five years before her death. She also drank a glass of port every night. She also thoroughly enjoyed chocolate. Calment passed on August 4, 1997, of unknown causes.

Susannah Mushatt Jones was the world’s oldest person until her death in 2016. She swore by bacon as one of her secrets to longevity.

Susannah Mushatt Jones on her 113th birthday in 2012.

Susannah Mushatt Jones on her 113th birthday in 2012.

Debbie Egan-Chin/NY Daily News/Getty Images

Jones was born on July 6, 1899, in Lowndes County, Alabama. She was the third of 11 children. She moved to New York in the 1920s, and although she never had any children, she remained very close with her siblings and their children.

According to Insider, at 115, Jones was still eating bacon and grits for breakfast, and she cited bacon as a food that helped her live a long life. She also ate a lot of fruit. Additionally, her niece said that she never drank, partied, or did drugs. 

However, more than anything, it was a loving family that kept Jones alive so long, as they cared for her and visited every Sunday.

Lesson Short Plan for 7 grade “Healthy Habits”

Posted in Healthy lifestyle


1-2 min


Greeting (date, weather, season,
month, day of the week, feeling)

(teacher elicits
previously learned tongue twisters)



Let’s remember some
English proverbs:

Health is above wealth.

Habit is a second nature.

pronounce the proverbs in chorus, then in turn.


Look at the pictures! What do you

What can make people fat?

What can make people strong?

What do you
think you would look like if you never got any

Who knows what does “couch potato”

right, it is “Healthy Habits”. During today’s lesson we should
learn how to live in a healthy style.

Teacher introduces students to lesson
objectives and descriptors:

Descriptors: A learner

  1. guess the theme of the lesson

  2. show or explain the key word of the

  3. identify 6 Healthy and 5 Unhealthy

  4. make Food pyramid in a group

  5. complete the grammar task correctly in
    A,B,C levels.

  6. Create 10 or
    more instructions of Healthy living.

Blackboard, chalk

Presentation in Power Point, interactive




1115 min

16-20 min

2127 min

2835 min


divide into 3 groups by choosing key word cards:

“Healthy Food”: (fruit, vegetables, grain bread, juice,

Team “Healthy Activity”: (swim, climb,
run, jump, walk)

“Healthy Lifestyle”: (diet, sleeping enough, no smoking, no drugs,
no alcohol)

2.Activating the vocabulary of the

Students discuss in groups and create
presentation for key words on their cards using their words, sounds
or motions. It is allowed to change the cards inside one group, but
each student represents only one word. The other groups should
guess what word it is.

3. Good Habits or Bad

Students are
given Worksheet #1 where they should classify Healthy and Unhealthy
habits into 2 columns.

1. You
should walk regularly.
2. You don’t need to eat fast food.
3. You mustn’t smoke.
4. You should feel happy.
5. You must eat grain bread and yoghurt.
6. You need to keep to diet.
7. You shouldn’t lay on a sofa all day long.
8. You mustn’t drink alcohol.
9. You need to breathe fresh air.
10. You must learn to relax.
11. You shouldn’t go to bed late.

After 5
minutes students exchange their Worksheets and check the answers
using Answer Key given on Active board in the way of peer
correction. Teacher provides feedback.

4. Practice using Modal

Teacher asks
students to remember modal verbs and she draws attention of
students to using modal verbs “must”, “should”, “have to”, “need”
and others. Students complete differentiated tasks




Teacher monitors their activity and
provides scaffold if needed.

completing the task students are given Answer Keys for

5. Making
a collage “Food pyramid”.
A teacher represents
the structure, content and purpose of a Food pyramid for healthy
living. Then learners analyze it in groups and design their own
Food pyramid. They cut out pictures from grocery store
advertisement magazines and glue them making collage. The number of
items, accuracy, presentation are taken into

6. Create
for Healthy Living
on the poster.

analyze and create 10 or more instructions to perform activities
related to maintaining of healthy lifestyle on their posters.
Speakers represent their posters. The number of instructions and
accuracy are taken into consideration.

Teacher provides whole
class feedback about pyramids and posters.

Key word
cards: fruit, vegetables, grain bread, juice, yoghurt, swim, climb,
run, jump, walk, sleeping enough, diet, no smoking, no drugs, no

Students’ gestures,

Worksheet #1,

List of habits,


cards Exercises 1,2,3

Answer Keys 1,2,3


store advertisement magazines,






36-40 min


Reflection: cinquain.

Each group
of learners is asked to create a cinquain associated with the name
of their group.






2.useful, tasty, cook, grow

4.I like healthy food.


2.pleasant, fast

3.swim, run, jump

4.Morning exercises make my



2.healthy, happy

3.breath,live, smile

4.Choose the right lifestyle.


Learners do
according to
descriptors: learners put “+” or “–“ in front of the

Today I could …

  1. guess the theme of the lesson

  2. show or explain the key word of the

  3. identify 6 Healthy and 5 Unhealthy

  4. make Food pyramid in a group

  5. complete the grammar task correctly in
    A,B,C levels.

  6. create 10 or more
    instructions of Healthy living




Worksheet #3

Worksheet #4

More support:

-for guessing the theme
of the lesson is given by scaffolding questions about

What is above wealth
according to the English proverb? (Health)

What is our second nature?

Now use these two words to make
one expression.

-during group division
activity by questions:

Do you eat it? (Food)
Do you do it when you are active? (Activity) Do some people live in
this way? (Lifestyle)

-for demonstrating key words
learners are permitted to exchange their cards. So, someone can
give definitions, the others show with gestures.

-for choosing Good and
Bad habits draw attention of the learners to the Verb: Should we
follow this verb?- Yes(Good Habit)No(Bad Habit).

-for practicing grammar
learners are given support by task (differentiated Exercises

-during making Food pyramid
learners are shown a picture on Active Board from time to

-for making poster “Healthy
Living” to remind learners the list of HealthyUnhealthy

More able learners:

– for choosing Good and Bad
habits are asked to make some their own examples of
HealthyUnhealthy habits.

– for practicing
grammar might be asked to do all exercises.

– make presentations of
collage and poster

Learners are introduced to
Descriptors in the beginning of the lesson. They assess themselves
at the end.

In order to motivate learners
after each their answer a teacher assesses them in oral

-Nice of you!

-Try again!

-Well done!

Learners use their gestures and
motions to explain the key words.

Presentation of the lesson in
Power point on Active Board

Eating healthy before, during and after COVID-19 | FAO Stories | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

If there was ever a time that made us pay attention to our health, it has been this one of the COVID-19 pandemic. This year has also made that clear that not everything in the world of health is under our control. However, many of us are lucky enough to have a say in one important element and that is what we eat. Healthy diets play an important role in our overall health and immune systems. The food we put in our bodies directly affects the way that we feel and the way our bodies function. This is as true during an illness as it is before or after.

Diets vary widely around the globe, influenced by access, incomes, habits and culture. Yet, there are some common truths about how to maintain a healthy diet regardless of where we live.

Here are 6 healthy eating habits and FAO resources to help you out:

1. Mix it up!

Eat a variety of foods within each and across all the food groups to ensure adequate intake of important nutrients. National food-based dietary guidelines can help you. FAO assists Member Countries to develop and implement food-based dietary guidelines in line with current scientific evidence. More than 100 countries worldwide have developed food-based dietary guidelines that are adapted to their population’s health situations, food availability, culinary cultures and eating habits. Find your country’s advice here.

2. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Fruits and vegetables provide loads of vitamins and minerals as well as the fiber that we need for healthy diet. Minimally processed frozen or canned fruits and vegetables are a good choice for limiting your trips to the market or supermarket. However, be sure to pay attention to the ingredients. In the canning and processing of these products, sometimes sugar, salt or preservatives are added. In fact, 2021 is the International Year of Fruits and Vegetables. Check out this story to expand your horizons about fruits and veggies you may never have heard of. You can also consult these FAO cookbooks to learn how to use them!

3. Take the pulse of the situation, be wholesome and go nuts!

Pulses, whole grains, nuts and healthy fats such as in olive, sesame, peanut or other unsaturated oils can support your immune system and help to reduce inflammation. Pulses, in particular, are environmentally friendly and a generally inexpensive source of protein. Beans, peas, lupins and other pulses are full of vitamins and minerals that, when part of an overall healthy diet, can help reduce the risk of diseases like diabetes and coronary conditions. Read all about the enormous variety of pulses and recipes to go with them in FAO’s Pulses Cookbook.

4. Limit fats, sugar and salt.

In times of high stress, many people turn to comfort food. Unfortunately, these are often high in fat, sugar, salt and calories, which as part of an unbalanced diet can over time affect your overall health. As a good habit, check the labels of all the foods you eat to learn about their ingredients and nutritional value. Food labels are there to help you limit the amount of certain ingredients or increase the levels of beneficial ones. Learn more about food labels and how to read them correctly in this story and this web page.

5. Practice good food hygiene.

Hygiene in all forms is particularly important in this time of pandemic. However, it is good to remember that COVID-19 is a respiratory virus. It is not a food-borne disease. Yet practicing food hygiene and safety is always important. Remember these five tips: (1) keep your hands, cooking utensils and cooking surfaces clean; (2) separate raw and cooked; (3) cook thoroughly; (4) keep food at safe temperatures and (5) use safe water. More details on food safety can be found can be found at this web site.

6. Be physically active and drink plenty of water.

Exercise is important for both our physical and mental health. Obesity and overweight have been significantly increasing in the last years. Particularly now, when people are staying at home more due to COVID-19 restrictions, it is important to find other ways of being active. You should aim for at least 30-60 minutes of daily exercise depending on your age and lifestyle. This children’s Nutrition activity book gives plenty of tips on how to help kids maintain a healthy lifestyle, from ideas on exercise to lessons on hygiene and food safety. FAO also has plenty of e-learning courses for adults if you want to learn more about the fascinating world of nutrition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the daily lives of people around the world, causing many people a lot of stress, sickness and pain. Amidst these difficulties and changes, it is all the more important to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Firstly, to protect yourself and others against COVID-19 infection and transmission, we all need to follow national rules and World Health Organization advice. Even with the introduction of a vaccine, these rules remain fundamental to help end the pandemic. Equally important, however, we need to take care of ourselves, and eating a healthy diet is one great way to do just that.

Learn more

Sleep for just six to seven hours a night to maximise heart health, study suggests

Posted in Healthy lifestyle
Too much or too little sleep may trigger inflammation that damages the heart. (Posed by a model, Getty Images)

Too much or too little sleep may trigger inflammation that damages the heart. (Posed by a model, Getty Images)

Aim for six to seven hours of sleep a night to maximise health health, a study has suggested.

The optimal amount of shut-eye has long been debated, with some people able to get by on less sleep than others.

The NHS recommends adults aim for six to nine hours of sleep a night, however, medics from Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit have suggested six to seven hours may be the sweet spot when it comes to heart health.

Although more research is needed, it seems too much or too little sleep may trigger inflammation that damages the heart.

Read more: iPhone’s ‘Night Shift’ does not help users sleep

Unlike a person’s age or genetics, sleep is somewhat controllable, allowing people to actively reduce their heart disease risk, according to the medics.

elder heart attack chest paint for background with space for text

More than one in four people die of heart disease in the UK alone. (Stock, Getty Images)

“Sleep is often overlooked as something that may play a role in cardiovascular disease and it may be among the most cost-effective ways to lower cardiovascular risk,” said lead author Dr Kartik Gupta. 

“Based on our data, sleeping six to seven hours a night is associated with more favourable heart health.”

Read more: Spouse with heart disease may double your risk

Heart disease is behind more than one in four deaths in the UK alone.

Not smoking, eating well and exercising regularly are known to ward off cardiovascular complications, however, the role of sleep was less clear.

To learn more, the Detroit medics analysed over 14,000 participants – average age 46 – of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 

Less than 10% of the participants had experienced heart disease before the study.

The participants were divided into groups based on the amount of sleep they claimed to average each night.

The medics also assessed the participants’ so-called atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score.

This calculates how likely someone is to have a heart attack or stroke, or die from hardening of the arteries, over the next 10 years. It takes into account the individual’s age, sex, ethnicity, blood pressure and cholesterol.

A score of less than 5% is considered low risk.

Overall, the participants’ ASCVD score averaged at 3.5%, as presented at the American College of Cardiology’s 70th annual scientific session.

Nevertheless, there was a U-shaped relationship between a patient’s score and their sleep duration, with six to seven hours being the lowest risk.

Read more: Student develops ‘severe’ heart failure after excessive energy drink consumption

Over the next 10 years, the participants’ estimated ASCVD score was 3.3% among those who had six to seven, or more than seven, hours sleep a night.

This is compared to a score of 4.6% among those who slept for under six hours.

The participants were also followed for around 7.5 years, to uncover who died of a heart attack, stroke or heart failure; when the organ cannot pump blood around the body efficiently.

“Participants who slept less than six hours or more than seven hours had a higher chance of death due to cardiac causes,” said Dr Gupta. 

“ASCVD risk score was, however, the same in those who sleep six to seven hours versus more than seven hours.”

The score may not have captured an elevated heart disease risk in the subgroup who slept for more than seven hours, with the risk perhaps stronger in those who got by on less than six hours, according to the medics.

Watch: Leafy greens cut heart disease risk

At the start of the study, the medics also measured the participants’ C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a marker of inflammation associated with heart disease.

“Participants who sleep less or more than six to seven hours have higher ASCVD risk scores, which is likely driven by heightened inflammation as measured by CRP, which was found to be higher among those who had less or more sleep,” said Dr Gupta. 

“The effect of sleep probably accrues over time. It takes time for the damage to happen.”

The team wants patients to be asked routinely about their sleep during medical appointments.

“It’s important to talk about not only the amount of sleep but the depth and quality of sleep too,” said Dr Gupta. 

“Just because you are lying in bed for seven hours doesn’t mean you are getting good quality sleep.”

The study did not assess how well or deeply the participants slept. For example, sleep apnoea – when a patient wakes in the night due to their breathing stopping and starting – is increasingly being linked to heart disease.

Tips for a good night’s sleep

People who struggle to sleep are advised to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends.

Winding down with gentle yoga, a warm bath, soothing music or a relaxing book can also help. Writing a to-do list for the next day may also calm a frazzled mind.

Experts also recommend people avoid screens, like their phone, for around an hour before bed.

Bedrooms should also be “sleep friendly”, with a comfortable mattress, pleasant temperature and black-out curtains, if necessary.

Keeping a sleep diary can help people link a poor night’s shut eye to lifestyle habits, like drinking too much coffee or alcohol.

Watch: Cancer survivors face higher heart disease risk

How to live your best life in retirement

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

How to live your best life in retirement

No more 9 to 5 means a whole new approach to life. Here’s how to embrace retirement with healthy habits that can make your golden years quality years.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

When you first launched into your working life, you may have dreamed of the day you could hang up your employee ID badge and turn off your alarm clock and cellphone.

But for many workers, when it actually happens, the transition to retirement can feel daunting. That dream you had at age 25 of sipping pina coladas on the beach may feel more like “What now?” at 65.

Like any major life transition, retirement is a time of shifting priorities. And how you spend all that newfound free time can make a big difference in your health and quality of life. Here’s how to make the most of your post-working years.

Picture the life you want

Close your eyes and imagine your happiest and most fulfilling version of retirement. What do you hope to be doing on a random Tuesday? Do you picture yourself spending time with grandchildren? Trying new recipes and hosting dinners? Volunteering at a hospital or mentoring co-workers at your old job? Playing golf with your friends?

Taking the time to think about what brings you meaning and purpose gives you a clearer vision of where you will find a good quality of life — and some helpful road markers to know if you are getting closer or further away.

Find a routine

Sure, freedom and flexibility sound great. But for many people, too much flexibility can start to be more stressful than pleasant. Most people have healthier lives with routines and patterns.

That doesn’t have to mean packing your schedule. Simply slot in a few regular activities that fit with how you want to spend your time. It could be weekly walks with a neighbor, or picking up your grandchild from school every Tuesday.

And that dream about a life without an alarm clock? Go for it, but keep some boundaries on your sleep habits. Sleep is the foundation for a resilient life, and getting up at the same time each day (within an hour) is a healthy routine to keep — even without a job to report to every day.

Stay socially connected

Loneliness can be a part of aging. But it doesn’t have to be. If work has been your primary social outlet, moving away from that world can feel like a shock. Think about what social connections you want to maintain, and what new ones you want to build on — ideally before you retire.

Sign up to volunteer in your community, invite your neighbor over for a BBQ and reinvest in your relationship with your spouse or other close friends. Faith based communities can also be a source of social connection.

Keep on learning

Research shows that challenging the brain in new ways can help to keep you mentally sharp. While you’re working, that often comes with the territory: meeting new people, mastering new skills. But when you retire, you may have to be more proactive.

You can — and should — keep discovering new things in your retired life, too. But you may have to seek them out. There are plenty of ways to do it, and crossword puzzles and sudoku are only the beginning.

Travel, whether it’s to a nearby city for a day or a far-flung destination for a month. Walk in nature. Take an adult education course at a community college. Whatever you choose, be sure to also get offline: More screen time has been linked with worse mental health in retirement, while more physical activity has the opposite effect.

So with some planning and challenging ourselves, retirement can be an enjoyable phase in our lives.