(1) Biden cabinet on Artsakh war, aid, arms supplies to Azerb. (2) NATO weapons in Azeri army (3) Diplomatic events (4) Rumors & rebuttals (5) Nuclear plant extension (6) POW’s story (7) Supreme Court judges elected (8) Natural science labs (9) Armenology classes (10) e-learning : armenia

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Your 14-minute Friday report in 3275 words.

NATO weapons used by Azerbaijan during war

French paper AgoraVox reports that the 44-day war was the first time when a NATO member-state (Czechia) supplied attack weapons to an active conflict zone. “It violated an internal agreement about members staying out of such conflicts.”

In 2018, Azerbaijan displayed the Czech-made Howitzer artillery units attached to mobile vehicles. It raised a wave of protest in Czechia, so the Czech govt quickly denied supplying weapons to Azerbaijan, claiming that the Czech arms company supplied those weapons to Israel instead.

Journalists found that the Czech and Slovakian arms companies had earlier attempted to obtain a license from Czechia to supply weapons to Azerbaijan, but they weren’t granted one.

Journalists found that 54 “Tatra” units were shipped to Israel, equipped with modern tech, then shipped to Slovakia where the units were equipped with another modern tech before being shipped to Azerbaijan.


Foreign Ministry condemns Turkish-Azeri military exercise

MFA spokeswoman: The Turkish-Azerbaijani military exercises in Kars do not speak about peaceful intentions towards Armenia, despite Turkish MFA saying “if the peace is lasting, Turkey and Azerbaijan are ready to take steps to normalize relations with Armenia.”

Artsakh MFA released a similar message, welcoming the European resolutions.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041083.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041144.html

National Interest: Congress Should Stop Giving Azerbaijan a Free Pass on Iran and Russia

“Part of the reason why the State Department continues to undermine efforts to hold Azerbaijan accountable for its actions is because of the fundamental disconnect between perceptions of Azerbaijan in Congress and the reality of that country’s policy”


Biden’s State Secretary pick Anthony Blinken about Artsakh conflict:

The US will review its security assistance to Azerbaijan after the recent Artsakh war, wrote Anthony Blinten to Senator Bob Menendez.

“I’m deeply concerned about the resumption of hostilities between Armenia and Azerbaijan last autumn and the humanitarian crisis in and around Nagorno-Karabakh. I strongly support US funding for demining efforts in Nagorno-Karabakh. I will work with the Congress, USAID, the UN, and the allies around the humanitarian issues.”

Sen. Menendez: how will the US help Armenians defend against Turkish-Azeri aggression?

Blinken: I support assistance to Armenia in strengthening security, stability, democratic governance, and promoting economic growth. Our administration will review the US security assistance to Azerbaijan. We will determine the appropriate level of assistance to meet the security needs of Armenia and the region.

Sen. Menendez: how will the US be involved in OCSE Minsk Group work in a way that will also reflect the interest of Armenians?

Blinken: President Biden said that the US should make diplomatic efforts to find a lasting solution to the conflict while working with our European partners. We should provide international humanitarian assistance to end the suffering. We will intensify the US involvement to find a permanent solution and protect Nagorno-Karabakh security.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041074.html , https://anca.org/press-release/secretary-of-state-designate-blinken-testifies-in-support-of-renewed-u-s-leadership-to-strengthen-armenias-security-and-resilience/

President Sarkissian congratulates President Biden:

I am confident that in the coming years you will do your best to ensure further progress and impressive achievements for your country.

I expect that our cooperation will provide an opportunity to advance the Armenian-American friendly relations, will contribute to the long-awaited peace and stability in the region.

I wish you and your administration success.


US ambassador to Armenia about the Artsakh conflict:

A political solution to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is needed to strengthen regional peace. The United States reaffirms the need for the immediate and safe return of POWs.

The United States reaffirms its commitment to working with the Armenian people, government, civil society, and the private sector to support the aspirations.

Full: https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041077.html

Army meets US envoy

General Chief of Staff Onik Gasparyan met US ambassador Tracey and US Military attaché Scott Maxwell to discuss defense cooperation and future plans.


US Senator Adam Schiff called for offcial recognition of Artsakh

“The US Congress must recognize the independence of Artsakh… The OSCE Minsk Group should resume the negotiations… The Turkish involvement should be reduced in the region.”


Foreign Ministry responds to pro-Armenian resolution passed in European Parliament

Yesterday the European Parliament adopted two resolutions condemning the use of illegal weapons in Artsakh, Turkey’s intervention, the use of jihadists, and called for securing the Armenian population’s existence in Artsakh.

Armenian Foreign Ministry: Armenia gives great significance to the resolutions condemning Turkey’s import of armed mercenaries from Syria and elsewhere. It contained information about the war crimes committed by Azerbaijan, and steps to eliminate the consequences. It’s very important that it not only condemns the war crimes but also calls for them not to remain unpunished.



LHK Marukyan: Artsakh war will be discussed in the PACE Monitoring Committee, but not in the plenary session. We will touch upon the subject during the plenary session with speeches.


rumors & rebuttals: Defense Ministry salaries

MoD dismissed rumors about lowering staff salaries. “January’s payment deadline is on February 7th. We gave a partial salary earlier this month to help workers; that wasn’t the final sum.”


rumors & rebuttals: Pashinyan’s statement about Shushi

Pashinyan was accused of saying that Shushi isn’t an Armenian city. He was quoted saying: “Շուշին հակամարտությունից և ազատագրումից առաջ ունեցել է 90 և ավելի տոկոս ադրբեջանական բնակչություն: Այսինքն, դուք ուզում եք ասել, որ 90 և ավելի տոկոս ադրբեջանական բնակչություն ունեցող Շուշի քաղաքը հայկակա՞ն էր իր այդ կարգավիճակով”

InfoCenter: an MP criticized Pashinyan [for not agreeing to give away Artsakh regions earlier in war], which would “keep Shushi Armenian.” In response to that last phrase, Pashinyan answered that soviet-era demographics would need to be restored under which Azeris would be 90% of the Shushi population.

QP MP: The Prime Minister’s speech was distorted in the press and in the speeches of various opposition politicians. Before the war, 90% of the Shushi population was Azeri. Therefore, if we agreed to hand over Shushi, we would end up with Shushi having a 90% Azeri population. Would Shushi remain “Armenian” under de-facto Azeri control? That is what the PM said.

https://factor.am/330900.html , https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/204909

bomb explosion in Jabrayil left an Azeri sapper wounded


search operations

The search crews discovered the bodies of 1 volunteer soldier in Jabrayil and 3 elderly civilians in the Hadrut regions. The civilians have been identified.


POW recalls war events and how he was captured

Vardan was one of the POWs who was transferred by Azerbaijan recently. He was deployed near Mataghis on the 2nd day of the war. “Artillery fired at night. It struck near our vehicles. In the morning a battle began. Some of my friends were wounded. The rest left… We found a bunker and stayed there until October 22nd. Azeris came and gunfire broke out on several occasions. We sustained casualties from a grenade. Our group was eventually captured. We were beaten for 7 days.” (full story in the link)


group of war participants demand “unpaid wages”

A group of men who fought in the 44-day war gathered in front of the Defense Ministry. They complained that the state owes them unpaid wages. “Let them first explain why. Maybe our names are not present on the list. Maybe the error was done in Artsakh so we should take the complaint to them? What can be done on our part?”


HimnaDram-donated infrastructure that was lost during the war

Since 1992, the All Armenia Fund has invested millions of dollars in Artsakh. Some of it was in regions that are now part of Azerbaijan. That sum is around $110 million.


Security Council meeting between Armenia and Artsakh

… was held today. The two agreed to meet more frequently to discuss future plans and exchange info.


Defense Ministry is recruiting high-tech experts

The MoD and HayTech Cybersecurity Center have an ongoing program to recruit high-tech and IT experts for the army. The exams will begin in February among this year’s conscripts.


Parliament votes to elect two Supreme Court judges

QP Party nominated former prosecutor Gagik Jhangiryan and Davit Khachatryan for Supreme Court Council seats (not to be confused with Constitutional Court). MPs asked questions to learn the candidate’s stance on various issues before voting.

Parliament’s legal affairs committee chief says Jhangiryan’s age does not disqualify him from becoming a member because he is appointed by Parliament and not fellow judges.

Opposition LHK and BHK decided not to participate in the Q&A and voting. They complained that the opposition’s opinion was ignored while selecting the candidates due to “political games”. “We have no problem with the candidates from a professional point of view. Both are professional,” said LHK MP Taron Simonyan.

BHK also left the room. BHK MP Tonoyan believes the Parliament should not discuss topics unrelated to humanitarian and POW issues.

Ind. MP: when [former regime members] were making assassination threats, the judges were releasing them back to the streets. The Supreme Court chief even made a statement urging judges to do so. Your opinion?

Candidate Jhangiryan: I don’t know details of those exact cases and justification behind no-arrest verdicts. I won’t give political opinions. If a case is launched within Supreme Court regarding that topic, I will give my professional opinion. Of course, there should be mechanisms to prevent violence.

MP to candidates: do you support the idea of merging Supreme Court Council and Constitutional courts to create one unified Supreme Court? (Context: in 2020 an expert group tasked with discussing Constitutional reforms voted 8-7 to support the idea of a merger)

Candidate Jhangiryan: No. The two are established institutes. If there are problems with them, they should be fixed separately.

Candidate Khachatryan: Yes, I support the merger.

MP asks: your opinion about judges being independent.

Candidate Jhangiryan: lower court judges should be independent of higher court judges and wealthy entities while making decisions. The system must be free not only from executive and legislative branches, but also underground criminal system, opposition and pro-government forces, and clans.

MP asks: comment the opposition’s decision not to participate in this Q&A and vote.

Candidate Jhangiryan: I approach it philosophically. I met the two parties. The discussions took place in a very warm and friendly atmosphere.

Ind. MP: comment the rumors about mansions owned by you.

Candidate Jhangiryan: I worked as the director of “Academy 9 Cooperative” and received a 4bd apartment in Davtashen. I sold it in 1989 and used the money to destroy our old house and build a new 3-story building in place. I became a public official in December-1990 after the house was already built.

MP asks: earlier you accused this government of not doing anything to create an independent judicial system. What steps will you take to achieve that?

Candidate Jhangiryan: actually that was out-of-context, I didn’t say the govt hasn’t done anything. Sure, the judicial code was reformed, new rules are established for checking candidates’ records, new anti-corruption institutes exist, but this takes a long time. What we need is quick action to purify the judicial system; it must be based on laws passed by you.

QP MP: March 1st trial [Kocharyan] is being delayed. People believe it’s being done artificially. What can the judicial system do?

Candidate Jhangiryan: I share the concerns with you. It’s been over >18 months that March 1st case is in a preliminary stage. It hasn’t entered the final evidence phase. Besides the petitions to dismiss prosecutors/judges, petitions to be released on bail, we haven’t seen anything else being done. I believe it’s a defense tactic. It’s abnormal. I don’t remember any such trials in which this phase lasted over 2 months. I don’t have a solution right now to expedite it, but it’s a fact that it’s being artificially delayed. It’s a defensive tactic. It’s an abuse of power. The court has the tools to prevent it.

QP MP: how come some judges give 15 years while others 10 for the same crime? Those with less money often get longer terms. There are corruption risks.

Candidate Jhangiryan: I’ve spoken about this discrepancy in the past. I brought comparisons between burglary-related court rulings between various regional courts. Under the same conditions, some defendants got terms that were 3 years longer. You can’t solve this legislatively. It has to be defined by the Cassations Court. We will try to resolve this.

The Parliament launched a secret-ballot vote to confirm or deny the candidates. Both of them were approved: Jhangiryan 86-3, Khachatryan 85-3.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041079.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041084.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041085.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041086.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041090.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041095.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041095.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041096.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041108.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041127.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041130.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041147.html , https://youtu.be/n4jgo_thvt4 , https://youtu.be/egiUEKxJVhQ , https://factor.am/330747.html , https://factor.am/330757.html , https://youtu.be/XKBZdEqfU_U , https://factor.am/330791.html , https://factor.am/330802.html

update: court reject’s Kocharyan’s petition to expel prosecutors

Robert Kocharyan and co-defendants lost a petition to remove and replace the prosecutors, as part of the March 1st trial.


Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant renovation / Armenian and Russian officials

Russian ambassador Sergey Kopyrkin and Infrastructure Minister Papikyan visited the nuclear plant to learn about the ongoing renovation work that will extend the NPP’s operational years. (renovation is being done with Russian loan, although the final part will be done with Armenian funds after Ministry found Russian loan terms unfavorable)

The NPP is preparing for the final renovation work. A system has been installed to repeatedly heat-and-cool the reactor’s metal parts to make them more durable. The installation of this system has been confirmed successful and will begin the reactor’s renovation process this year. This will allow the NPP to operate beyond 2026, likely until 2036. The renovation work is done by the Russian Rosatom Service.

Minister Papikyan thanked his Russian colleagues for the work and for continuing the operations during the pandemic. Minister said Armenia’s main goal for the future is the construction of a new nuclear plant. (big if true)

The Russian ambassador said, “The traditions of mutual assistance, trust, and friendship determine the relations between Russia and Armenia. Nuclear energy remains a truly strategic direction for the development of our bilateral cooperation. A lot of work has been done in the last three years, made possible by Armenian and Russian experts. The NPP should continue to serve as a cheap source of energy to help the economic development.”


cargo transport in EAEU bloc during pandemic

With +1.9%, Armenia was the only member that recorded a YoY increase in cargo transport. It reached 13.5 million tons. Land transport up, air transport down.

EAEU -7.2%. Russia -7.3%. Kyrgyz -21%.


new railway or road route to Russia could solve Lars problem

Hundreds of cargo trucks couldn’t travel between Armenia and Russia because the only land passage in Lars, Georgia was closed due to snow. Deputy Economy Minister says this will be a thing of the past if regional transport is unblocked.

“Armenian agricultural goods will be priced more competitively in foreign markets. Fresh food will arrive sooner. When a season begins, some food prices are very high. That’s when businesses want to enter the market. Cargo delays in Lars lead to great economic losses for these businesses.”


why does sugar cost ֏344?

State regulators found that a recent price hike is a result of a combination of factors. Importing sugar costs +22% more, cane import costs +2%, Dram devalued over Ruble -4%, the level of supplies that exist in Armenian storages vary. As a result, sugar prices increased +5% from last month.

2017: ֏337

2018: ֏279

2019: ֏209

2020: ֏328


flu season / get a free vaccine

Acute respiratory infections are more common this year. A medium activity was recorded. The Healthcare Ministry advises the population, especially seniors, to get vaccinated. It’s free.


COVID stats

+2042 tested. +183 infected. +213 healed. +9 deaths. 7678 active.


Economy Minister’s trip to Syunik and Iran

Economy Minister Qerobyan visited Syunik to discuss economic aid for the province. Ministry will collect ideas from local farmers as part of an agricultural aid program.

He visited Meghri free economic zone and met several businesses. The Minister considered the operation of the free economic zone as a priority issue that needs to be resolved ASAP.

Qerobyan then visited Iran to discuss the development of bilateral trade and economic cooperation. He will meet Iranian state officials and businesses.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041087.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041137.html

Armenia and Iran renew the agreement on joint film production

Education Ministry, National Cinema Center, and Iran’s Farabi Film Foundation renewed the 2017 agreement on cooperation in the field of cinematography in order to create joint film projects and strengthen Armenian-Iranian cultural ties.

It can contribute to the preservation of film heritage, the creation of children’s film programs, the development of joint film production, the implementation of bilateral educational programs, the formation of the Armenian-Iranian film market, the distribution of films, and participation in bilateral festivals.


“Elder Olympics”

To promote a healthy lifestyle among seniors, this year the Education/Sports Ministry will organize a national sports competition among the >63yo people who provide a doctor’s approval.

Seniors will be throwing basketball shots, darts, and play board games like chess, checkers, and short backgammon (aka incorrect backgammon). The winners will receive Cups and participation certificates.


education reforms to improve students’ remote learning skills

The Education Ministry cooperated with the National Center for Educational Technology to draft a reform package to promote e-learning. It will help rural areas that lack qualified teachers. In 2020, 101 schools couldn’t teach 18 subjects due to a shortage of 695 teachers.

Top-5 subjects with teacher shortage: fine arts, music/dance, Armenian Church History, Informatika.

Upon completion, the student can attend most classes in-person, and receive e-learning from a teacher in another school for certain subjects.


֏120 million to teach Armenology in foreign schools

Education Ministry will promote the Armenian language, culture, and history in education centers around the world. The funding for this program has significantly increased since 2019.

2019: ֏16 million

2020: ֏60 million

2021: ֏120 million

This year, the recipients will be 8 education centers in 6 countries, instead of 4. The list will later expand to include Russian and Egyptian universities that were left out due to pandemic.

Teaching is carried out mainly by local Armenologists, sometimes with the help of specialist visits from Armenia.


high schools will have laboratories for natural sciences

Education Ministry says 99 schools will be equipped with modern tech to study natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geography). “Such laboratories will increase the interest among young people in scientific research, group work, implementation of innovative programs.”


today in history

1905: Russian revolution begins with a labor strike in St. Petersburg.

1921: composer Arno Babajanyan was born (Fake news. He was born on January 21st but his father faked it to 22nd so the birthday celebration wouldn’t coincide with the death of Lenin, who died on 21st. All heil Ճպլ պապի!)

1944: the US and Britain launch Operation Shingle against the Axis.

1969: assassination attempt against Leonid Brezhnev.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041026.html , https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041046.html

top-5 bestseller translated books in December

5)«Աղախնի պատմությունը» by Մարգրեթ Աթվուդ

4) «Հազար չքնաղ արևներ» by Խալեդ Հոսեյնի

3) «Երկնքից երեք խնձոր ընկավ» by Նարինե Աբգարյան

2) «Զուլալի» by Նարինե Աբգարյան

  1. «Սուրբծննդյան հրեշտակը» by Մարկ Արեն


Artsakh refugees continue to return to their homes

87 did so today, bringing the total via Lachin road to 50,390. Over 95,000 people have returned if you combine the Qarvachar road while it was still operational.

German “Aktion Deutschland Hilft” and World Vision Armenia will provide material aid to 10,000 Artsakh refugees.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1041153.html , https://www.armtimes.com/hy/article/204948

donations to Artsakh & recovering soldiers

www.1000plus.am (recovering soldiers & their families)

www.HimnaDram.org (for Artsakh & Armenia)

www.ArmeniaFund.org (U.S. tax-deductible)

archive of older news



All the accused are considered innocent unless proven guilty in the court of law, even if they “sound” or “appear” guilty.

Exercise as it relates to Disease/Aerobic exercise impact on coronary heart disease

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

What is Coronary Heart Disease?[edit]

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), is a disease, in which a plaque (cholesterol substance and fatty deposit) builds up inside the coronary arteries of the heart, narrowing the small blood vessels that provide oxygenated and nurtient rich blood to the heart. The building of a plaque takes many years, the condition when the plaque is already builds up in the arteries is called Atherosclerosis. As a result, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. When the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle is reduced or blocked, angina, shortness of breath or a heart attack can occur.[1][2]

Definition and characteristics of Aerobic Exercise[edit]

Aerobic exercise is a moderate intensity and constant physical exercise, which uses oxygen, in which the cardio respiratory system refills the oxygen consumed (in the energy-generating process) into the working muscles. Also it is a physical work which requires additional effort by the heart and lungs to meet the muscles´ increased demand for oxygen. Oxygen is used to “burn” fats and glucose in order to produce adenosine triphosphate, the basic energy carrier for all cells. In general, aerobic exercises are those exercises performed at a moderate level of intensity for extended period of time that maintains an increased heart rate.[3]

Prevalence of CHD[edit]

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA, CHD is the leading cause of death for males and females in the USA. CHD caused the death of over 425,000 people in 2006. In 2012, CHD caused the death of about 600,000, 1 in every 4 deaths in the USA. More than half of the deaths were in men.[4]
According to Heart Foundation, Australia, CHD claimed the lives of over 21,500 Australians (14% of all deaths) in 2011. CHD kills 59 Australians each day, or one Australian every 24 minutes.[5]

CHD Risk Factors[edit]

Below is a table of both Modifiable and Non-Modifiable risk factors of CHD [1][6][7]

Modifiable Risk Factors Non-Modifiable Risk Factors
  • Tobacco Smoking status
  • High Blood Pleasure
  • High Blood Cholesterol

( High LDL or Low HDL )

  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Lack of exercise
  • Diet
  • Emotional/mental stress

(Men are greater risk.
However, the risk for women increases after menopause)

  • Gene type
  • Family History of CHD

Benefits of Aerobic Exercise in CHD[edit]

Some of the benefits are:[8][9][10]

  • Strengthen the heart and cardiovascular system
  • Keep the cholesterol at a healthy level. Reduction in bad (LDL and total) cholesterol and Increase in good (HDL) cholesterol
  • Improve the circulation and help the body use oxygen better
  • Lower blood pressure, keep the blood pressure at a healthy level
  • Improving coronary Artery Vasomotion
  • Make heart and blood circulatory system more efficient
  • Help reduce body fat, help to reach and stay at a healthy weight
  • Help reduce emotional and mental stress, tension, anxiety, and depression

[11] When the person already has CHD aerobic exercise prevents the blood vessels from narrowing further (anti-atherosclerotic), prevents blood clotting (anti-thrombotic), helps deliver blood to the heart (anti-ischaemic), and helps to maintain a normal heart rhythm (anti-arrhythmic), as decrease the risk of death from CHD.


Because many lifestyle habits begin during childhood, parents should persuade their children to make healthy choices, to reaching a strengthen heart and cardiovascular system. Moreover, parents should encourage their children to maintain a healthy weight, to follow a healthy diet, to do physical activity regularly, particularly AEROBIC EXERCISE, and do not smoke to have a lower risk of CHD. If the children follow those recommendations until their adulthood, the risk of suffering CHD would be considerably lower compared with the adults who did not follow those instructions when they were children.[9]

Australian Federal Government should increase the Governmental Politics against the developing and increasing the CHD amongst Australians, also it should be and increasing of advertising about of the CHD, in order to advice Australians how lethal is this disease; by doing that Australians would realise the terrible consequences to suffer CHD and they would know that when they have this disease they are in high risk of dying; as a result, most of the people would star follow the recommendations to avoid to have CHD.

Finally, to achieve maximum benefits, the person should gradually work up to an aerobic session of at least 30 continuous minutes, at least three to four times a week. With an intensity of 70 to 85 percent of maximal hate rate. Aerobic exercises include: walking, jogging, jumping rope, bicycling, skiing, skating, rowing, and aerobics, between others. The American Heart Association recommends exercising on most days of the week. While the more exercise the person can do the better for his/her fitness and his/her health, also reduces the risk to die due to CHD

Further reading[edit]


  1. ab Nordqvist, C. (2013). ‘What Is Coronary Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease)? What Causes Coronary Heart Disease? ‘, Journal of Medical News Today, viewed 26 October 2013,
  2. Dugdale, D. (2012). ‘Coronary Heart Disease’, Journal of National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus, viewed 26 October 2013,
  3. Moholdt, T. (2010). ‘Aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease’, Doctoral thesis Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging.
  4. Heart Disease Facts America’s Heart Disease Burden, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, viewed 26 October 2013, .
  5. Cardio Vascular Disease, Data and Statics, Heart Foundation, viewed 26 October 2013,
  6. Dugdale, D. (2012). ‘Heart disease risk factors’, Journal of National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus, viewed 26 October 2013. .
  7. Coronary artery disease, Risk factors, Mayo Clinic, viewed 26 October 2013,
  8. Coronary heart disease – Prevention, Preventing Heart disease, National Health Service England, viewed 26 October 2013, < http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/coronary-heart-disease/Pages/prevention.aspx>
  9. abc Heart Disease: Exercise for a Healthy Heart, Heart Disease Health Center, WebMD Medical Reference, viewed 26 October 2013,
  10. Myers, J. (2003). ‘Cardiology Patient Page, Exercise and Cardiovascular Health’, Journal of American Heart Association, 107: e2-e-5, doi:10.1161/0.1
  11. Wood, R.J., et al. (2012). ‘Heart disease–coronary heart disease CHD, (2011), Exercise is Medicine, viewed 26 October 2013, < http://exerciseismedicine.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/CHD_full.pdf>

Long Covid TheMotte Survey Results : TheMotte

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Last week I created a survey for r/themotte about whether covid frequently has long-term side effects in people aged 30 to 45. I did this survey because I am in this age group and I was curious about how scared of covid I should be.

Here are the results:

  • 212 recovery reports — acquaintances between the age of 30 and 45 who have gotten covid and fully recovered

  • 19 (8.2%) long covid reports — acquaintances between the age of 30 and 45 who have got the wuflu more than 3 months ago, and are still feeling significant effects.

  • 11 (4.5%) infected and not recovered, but it hasn’t been 3 months yet.

There were also 6 deaths reported.

I also ran this same exercise in a couple groupchats I participate in, with the same age bracket restrictions. The results:

  • 40 infected and fully recovered

  • 3 (7.5%) long covid cases

  • 1 infected and not recovered, but it hasn’t been 3 months yet.

Let’s talk about some potential biases:

  • People with very mild or asymptomatic cases may never have gotten tested and therefore never confirmed as cases. This would bias the reported long-covid ratio upward.

  • People with severe side effects be more likely to tell their friends about their covid experience. This would bias the reported long-covid ratio upward.

  • People reporting long covid might be hypochondriacs, or vitamin deficiencies, or iatrogenic due to excessive use of ventilators back in March, or reporting psychosymatic, or lock-down induced, or deconditioning, or coincidental depression. This would bias the long covid ratio upward.

  • The PCR tests might be way too sensitive, or were based on incorrect self-diagnosis, and many of the mild or asymptomatic cases did not actually have coronavirus. This would bias long covid ratio downward.

  • Motteizens reporting about the covid of their friends might not be aware that their friends hadn’t fully recovered. This would bias the long covid ratio downward.

The ratio of deaths reported is definitely biased to be way too high. This is because every death in your extended circle is going to be widely reported, but you won’t know about the vast majority of infections. The best estimate of the fatality rate for someone like me (healthy between 30 and 45) I think comes from the military statistics. I’ll include those below too.

A few people asked me, “Why don’t you just read the peer reviewed studies about long covid?”, I answered that here.

Below I will include the excerpts of the descriptions of the long covid cases. You all can make your own judgements about whether you think they are “real” or “psychosomatic”.

Another important dataset is that of professional athletes, because long-term effects would be public, objective, and visible. Even if they start from a high level of fitness, any drop-off in lung capacity would be noticeable. As far as I can tell hundreds of athletes have gotten it, but every single athlete has either made a full recovery or is on track for a full recovery. A handful of athletes had nasty bouts that sidelined for a while (eg. Eduardo Rodriguez on the Boston Red Sox, Jamaal Lascelles on Newcastle) but they seem to have eventually made full recoveries.

My personal conclusion: I’m still a bit torn, and I do not think the results of this survey have really changed my view. If I put on my rationalization hat I can reason that “long covid” isn’t really a threat, it’s a small percentage, even smaller percentage if we exclude the psychsomatics, and they’ll probably recover eventually. If I put on my “precautionary principle” hat, I can think, well, it would be lousy to draw the short straw and never be able to play sports again because I caught a nasty case of COVID. Might as well hold off on going to the gym for another six months until I can get vaxxed.

Excerpts about long covid

I’ve got lasting memory and attention impairments. Feels like I’ve aged at least 10 years cognitively.

On the one long hauler, I’m not convinced her symptoms aren’t psychosomatic. She caught it in July, recovered, and was still complaining about brain fog a month or two ago. But she was a really balls to the wall blue triber who was sheltering in place, never leaving the home, screaming at everyone about masks, and addicted to facebook and politics. She swears she only left the house twice since covid began, and that she must have contracted it from some teenagers who were in the same parking lot as her without masks on, some forty feet away from her, which I deem incredibly unlikely.

The only lingering effect I’ve noticed is shortness of breath, presumably due to some sort of lung damage. It’s not not that bad given my current lifestyle – it mostly just keeps me from exercising as often or as long as I used to. (I reach the point where I’m gasping for breath, more quickly than I did before I got covid-19.)

Probably got covid In October 2019 (wasn’t diagnosed, because it wasn’t really “invented” then, but I have antigens now and wasn’t sick at all and followed all guidelines since the confirmed outbreak).

I remember I was coughing and feeling sick for about 2 weeks, some fever and headaches in between, then sometimes had to cough for a few weeks. Just thought I had a stubborn cold. End November I got my yearly health check-up where they test lung capacity, etc. My lung capacity was a joke. I remember the doctor was really confused why a person my age had such low volume even though everything else seemed fine. I didn’t even notice before I did the checkup.

Still feel like I don’t have the same lung capacity I had before.

But I strongly echo concerns about difficulty in distinguishing between actual lingering effects of infection and the consequences of lifestyle changes, and would also note that the lingering symptoms are both comparatively mild at this point and seemingly continuing to improve.

For what it’s worth, I know three people on their twenties who have had long covid for more than six months, one of whom is me on about ten months now. We’re all still unwell, we were all highly athletic. One person can’t go for a walk because the cold air irritates her lungs too much. I mostly just have fatigue but occasionally I’ll get random shortness of breath or a very sharp pain in my chest when I take a deep breath.

my wife and I had it about a year ago now, very early case and both of us were sicker than we’d been before, apart from one time when I was younger and had severe viral pneumonia. I’ve now got asthma and require an inhaler to exercise heavily or during wildfire season, didn’t have that need before. Before getting it, I was biking 30 miles for my commute 3x/wk and walking using the bus about 2-4miles the other days and I certainly couldn’t do any of that now. I’ve got headaches, brain fog, and can’t concentrate. I need the house fairly dark almost all the time or I’ll get a migraine, and I’m exhausted most of the time.

My wife lost a tooth after getting it, the root just died, and her GI tract is shot. She can’t digest easily now and she had a hard time before covid but it made it worse.

…I live in a state with lots of high altitude beauty, and I was pretty afraid I’d not be able to hike peaks again. I was able to make it into the alpine this summer but had a much more difficult time than I had before, although simply being able to do it proved I was getting better, but I still feel pretty weak.

For the two younger people I know that got long-term issues the problems were primarily physical with very elevated pulse and exhaustion from even mild/moderate physical activity like going on a short walk at a leisurely pace. Other physical symptoms were joint pain, lymph node pain and head aches…..It should be noted that the guy who had symptoms for more than 3 months is now getting better, albeit slowly and it’s been over 6 months now and he’s still not completely well. Another thing to note is that both the persons are male and have no history of either physical or mental health issues. Neither were hospitalised but were still pretty ill.

I only know one friend who’s gotten COVID that I’ve had the chance to discuss it with. He got it 6 months back and his only complaint is that his sense of smell and taste has never recovered and eating and drinking is still like he’s got a bad cold.

My yoga loving wife who eats & lives like a saint was in the ICU TWICE. It took her 3mo to recover & her 5k/sprint triathlon season won’t be happening in ’21.

My former boss is a scientist, hiker, very active, least likely person to whine or be sedentary, and she had lingering symptoms, so for me that anecdote was persuasive just knowing her. But I didn’t include her since at 50 she is slightly out of this age bracket.

Although she is now back to 90-95%, I’m including her in the “over 3mo” category because she was out of commission from early April thru Octoberish. Smell came back over the summer but cardio & cognitive effects remained significant enough to that she couldn’t work (civil engineer). Still doesn’t feel able to perform musical theatre (her main passion).

However one has not fully recovered his sense of smell.

Though it’s worth noting that the guy I know who had COVID less than three months ago is right on the cusp of moving into the more than three months ago group. As a national guardsman, previous to getting COVID he was pretty fit. Now my lazy ass can easily beat him at hiking; when I went with him recently with a few other friends, he needed to turn around a quarter of the way into the hike. It’s really sad to see that happen, it was clear he was taking the loss of capability really hard psychologically too.

COVID in the U.S. Military

I mentioned above that I think the military covid data gives us our best estimates of covid fatality in young and healthy people. Here are my calculations:

  • 126,437 military cases source

  • 15 deaths source

  • I found articles on 13 of the 15 deaths. Four deceased were in their 30s, every one else was over 40.

  • 33% of the active duty military is over thirty, 8% is over 40 source

  • Rough guestimate then, that 1/3rd of the military COVID cases were over 30. This assumption could an over-estimate to the extent that the young are less likely to be working from home or otherwise social distancing and therefore more likely to be infected. This is an underestimate to the extent that the age distribution of reserves is significantly older than the age distribution of active duty.

  • CFR is zero for people under 30

  • CFR for is 0.03% — or 1 in 3,000 for all military over the age of 30

  • CFR is 0.01% (or 1 in 10,000) for 30-40 year olds.

  • CFR is 0.1% for over 40 year olds in the military

A carbohydrate-restricted diet for patients with irritable bowel syndrome lowers serum C-peptide, insulin, and leptin without any correlation with symptom reduction

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

A carbohydrate-restricted diet for patients with irritable bowel syndrome lowers serum C-peptide, insulin, and leptin without any correlation with symptom reduction




  • Starch and sucrose-reduced diet led to lower levels of C-peptide, insulin and leptin

  • Reduction of C-peptide and insulin levels correlated with reduced carbohydrate intake

  • There was no correlation between hormone levels and gastrointestinal symptoms


Alterations in gut endocrine cells and hormone levels have been measured in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The hypothesis of the present study was that hormone levels would change after 4 weeks of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet (SSRD) intervention corresponding to decreased carbohydrate intake and symptoms. Among 105 IBS patients from primary and tertiary healthcare, 80 were randomized to SSRD, while 25 followed their ordinary diet. Food diaries, Rome IV, and IBS-symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) questionnaires were completed, and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Serum C-peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, leptin, luteinizing hormone, polypeptide YY, and glucose were measured, along with the prevalence of autoantibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone; its precursor, progonadoliberin-2, and receptor; and tenascin C. Carbohydrate intake was lower in the intervention group than in controls at week 4 (median: 88 [66-128] g vs 182 [89-224] g; P < .001). The change in carbohydrate intake, adjusted for weight, was associated with a decrease in C-peptide (β: 14.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.12-24.75) and insulin (β: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.32) levels. Glucose levels remained unchanged. The IBS-SSS scores were lower in the intervention group but not in controls (P < .001), without any association with changes in hormone concentrations. There was no difference in autoantibody prevalence between patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, the hypothesis that reduced carbohydrate intake corresponded to altered hormonal levels in IBS was accepted; however, there was no relationship between hormonal concentrations and symptoms.

Keywords: Carbohydrate-restricted diet; Dietary intervention; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; Hormones; Irritable bowel syndrome; Starch- and sucrose-reduced diet.


Patients randomized to the intervention group (n = 80) received dietary advice that mainly focused on starch and sucrose reduction, while increasing intake of fruits and vegetables with less starch content, egg, fish, meat, and dairy products. The dietary advice was similar to that given to patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) [19]. Briefly, all kinds of sucrose-containing food, e.g., sweets, cakes, jam, and juice, were to be avoided, and snacks should be replaced with nuts. Regular carbohydrates, such as processed rice and pasta, were discouraged and instead fiber-rich alternatives, such as raw rice, fiber-rich pasta, and fiberrich bread, were recommended. Patients were provided with visual aids to familiarize themselves with which berries, fruits, legumes, and vegetables to prefer or avoid (Table 1). Increased fat and/or protein intake was recommended to delay gastrointestinal transport and promote starch tolerance. Patients were encouraged to prolong chewing during food intake and chew food completely to enhance salivary amylase breakdown of starch. The dietary intervention did not focus on overall frequency or regularity of feeding habits. The patients randomized to the control group (n = 25) were recommended to continue with their ordinary food habits. All participants were encouraged to continue with their ordinary degree of physical activity and medications. The participants could reach the study staff by telephone or email whenever they wanted during the study.


The carbohydrate intake in the control and intervention groups was equal at baseline (Table 4, Figure 3a), but significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group at week 4 (88 [66–128] g versus 182 [89–224] g, P < .001) (Table 4, Figure 3a). The changes during the 4-week study differed between the groups (P < .001) (Figure 3b)

There were no significant differences in the scores for abdominal pain, days of pain, bloating, satisfaction with bowel habits, influence on daily life, and total IBS-SSS scores between the two groups at baseline (Table 4). After 4 weeks, the patients on the SSRD diet had significantly improved scores for the individual questions and total IBS-SSS scores, which was not observed in the control group (Table 4). The changes in total IBS-SSS scores differed between the intervention and control groups (-148 [-203– -72] versus -30 [-54–33], P < .001).

3.3 Hormonal levels

At baseline, glucagon levels were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (33.9 [26.4–58.6] pM versus 27.0 [18.9–36.3] pM, P = .03) (Table 6). Glucagon levels remained significantly higher (38.0 [26.3–70.2] pM versus 28.9 [22.3–41.4] pM, P = .02) and leptin levels were significantly lower (10531.9 [4776.4–25081.1] pg/mL versus 28074.7 [12623.0–41315.3] pg/mL, P = .01) in the intervention group than in the control group after 4 weeks (Table 6). Levels of C-peptide (Figure 4a), GIP (Figure 4b), insulin (Figure 4e), and leptin (Figure 4f) were significantly reduced in the intervention group after the dietary intervention compared with those at baseline, whereas there were no changes in the control group (Table 6, Figure 4). The differences in the changes in the levels of C-peptide (P = .03), insulin (P = .03), and leptin (P < .001) between the two groups were significant (Figure 5). There were non-significant differences in the basal hormonal serum levels and changes in levels between IBS subgroups and sexes (data not shown). 3.4 Comparison of hormonal levels with carbohydrate changes and IBS symptoms The decrease in carbohydrate intake correlated with decreased levels of C-peptide (rs = 0.275, P = .02) and insulin (rs = 0.244, P = .04) but not with leptin levels (rs = 0.125, P = .30). To adjust for weight changes, analyses were continued with linear regression. A decrease in carbohydrate intake was associated with a decrease in C-peptide (β: 14.43; 95% CI: 4.12– 24.75) and insulin (β: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04–0.32), but not leptin (Table 7). The changes in weight were associated with a reduction in C-peptide (β: 493.13; 95% CI: 14.62–971.64), insulin (β: 8.20; 95% CI: 1.71–14.70), and leptin (β: 2346.00; 95% CI: 244.75–4447.26) levels. The standardized β value for C-peptide was higher for carbohydrate changes (0.32) than for weight reduction (0.24) but was similar regarding insulin levels (0.29 for both). There were no significant associations with the changes in hormones and carbohydrate intake in the control group (Table 7). There was no correlation between the levels of any hormone and gastrointestinal symptoms, satisfaction with bowel habits, or influence of the gastrointestinal symptoms on daily life at baseline, and the changes in hormone levels did not correlate with any changes in any IBSSSS scores (data not shown).

4. Discussion

Our first hypothesis that a SSRD diet would affect serum levels of hormones involved in glucose homeostasis or gut function was partly accepted, since the SSRD led to lower serum levels of the hormones C-peptide, insulin, and leptin in IBS patients, without affecting glucose levels. Our second hypothesis was also partly accepted since the reduction in the serum levels of C-peptide and insulin correlated with a reduction in carbohydrate intake. However, the hypothesis that the changes in hormonal levels would correlate with changes in gastrointestinal symptoms was rejected. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of IgM autoantibodies against GnRH1, progonadoliberin-2, GnRH-R, or TNC between IBS patients and healthy controls. The use of dietary interventions to manage IBS is common [11], albeit with debatable efficacy for some diets [29]. A diet with reduced FODMAPs content has been documented to improve the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by IBS patients in many previous studies [5,30]. The first pilot study examining the SSRD showed a positive effect of the diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS [17,18]. This study showed that SSRD reduced the serum levels of C-peptide and insulin, corresponding with the reduction in carbohydrate intake. C-peptide is important in the biosynthesis of insulin, while insulin regulates the utilization of glucose [6]. Elevated levels of C-peptide and hyperinsulinemia have been found in IBS patients, which is considered to be a consequence of heightened stress-induced cortisol production [31,32] but may also be a consequence of an unhealthy diet [33]. As these hormones are fundamental in glucose homeostasis, their manipulation could possibly provide a platform for the prevention of metabolic syndromes in IBS patients [34,35,36]. Sustained hyperinsulinemia results in insulin resistance, which is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndromes [34,36]. Gulcan et al. [35] reported that IBS patients have a significantly higher frequency of prediabetes, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, than healthy controls. Therefore, the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia, type-2 diabetes, and metabolic syndromes should be further examined in IBS patients. The lowered leptin levels were associated with weight reductions, which is in line with the role of leptin in the regulation of energy intake [9]. The secretion of gut hormones is mainly influenced by luminal contents, i.e., the nature of ingested food and food composition [4,37], and regulated by the brain-gut signaling axis [38]. However, the specific mechanisms by which gastrointestinal luminal contents activate the secretion of gut hormones are not fully understood [37]. Nonetheless, these hormones mediate activities in the gut such as gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and permeability [9,39]; as such, alterations in their secretion may contribute to the experience of abnormal gastrointestinal symptoms [4,5]. Studies have found that IBS patients have altered expression of endocrine cells producing hormones, such as cholecystokinin, GIP, secretin, and PYY, in the gut and altered levels of circulating leptin [40,41]. Besterman et al. [42] demonstrated different levels of plasma gut hormones in different IBS categories, although no specific pattern could be identified. El-Salhy et al. [12] summarized how different IBS subtypes present with different densities of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present dietary study, we found a decreased secretion of GIP in the intervention group after 4 weeks, although the changes were not statistically significant compared with those in the control group. We could not confirm any relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and levels of gut hormones. Furthermore, the present study did not yield any significant differences between subgroups of IBS patients. Thus, the significant role of gut hormones in IBS described by El-Salhy et al. [4,5] may rather be related to the dietary intake than to the symptoms. Nevertheless, IBS patients are likely to benefit from dietary management, and reduced carbohydrate intake presents a promising future dietary strategy [11,12,17,18]. We were unable to confirm the increased prevalence of IgM autoantibodies against GnRH1, progonadoliberin-2, GnRH-R, and TNC in the current cohort of IBS patients, in contrast to what has previously been demonstrated in IBS patients from a tertiary Department of Gastroenterology [2,15]. In the present study, 73% of IBS patients were recruited from PCC. The expression of these antibodies is supposed to be a consequence of neuronal damage to the ENS, exposing GnRH1 and LH to the immune system [2,43]. It is well described that the general IBS population at PCC are different from those referred for further examination by gastroenterology specialists [44]. Factors like impaired psychological well-being [45], unhealthy diet [18], and poor lifestyle habits [33] greatly affect gastrointestinal function and can induce negative experiences similarly to those described as IBS-like symptoms. Therefore, a prudent examination of these patients at PCC is important to confirm the existence of a true gastrointestinal diagnosis. Several patients recruited from Departments of Gastroenterology with non-organic symptoms may suffer from enteric neuropathy rather than IBS [46]. This study emphasizes the difficulty and unreliability of using neuropeptides and immune response mediators as biomarkers for IBS disease, as has been observed in other studies [41,47]. Due to lifestyle and dietary changes over time, metabolic syndromes are on the rise in the general population [34,48], which has placed a great economic burden on society [49]. A carbohydrate-restricted diet has been shown also to decrease hormone levels and gastrointestinal symptoms in type 2 diabetes without any correlations between these decreases [50]. It is therefore necessary to initiate preventive health measures, such as dietary interventions like SSRD and other well-established diets, to reduce the intake of processed sugars and carbohydrates not only in IBS patients but also in those at a risk of metabolic syndromes [34,48]. The strengths of this study include the inclusion of eight hormones and use of robust laboratory technologies for hormonal analyses. In addition, confounders, such as differences in age, weight, and sex, were considered in the analyses when comparing the intervention and control groups in the study. The use of a nutritionist and computer program to analyze the carbohydrate consumption based on patients’ food diaries to give objective data was also a strength of the study.

There are several limitations; one such limitation is the measurement of hormones and glucose in non-fasting serum. The choice not to have fasting visits was to make it easier for patients to come to visits in relation to their working times. However, patients came at approximately the same time for both visits and they were compared with themselves. Another limitation is that not we did not control for factors, such as psychological well-being, and lifestyle influences other than the diet, which could possibly also influence the relationship between IBS and neuropeptides. Furthermore, there was one patient who had been treated for type 2 diabetes. Other limitations are that there was no control cohort for comparison of hormone levels with the general population or subjects without IBS, and only serum levels of hormones were examined and not the expression of endocrine cells in the bowel. In conclusion, a diet focusing on the reduction of starch and sucrose is a promising management approach for the disorder and reduces the highlighted risk of metabolic diseases in IBS patients. The changes in circulating levels of C-peptide and insulin correlate with the changes in carbohydrate intake. Although the role of hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS has been proposed, the explicit link and effect between these hormones have and symptomatology remains to be adequately demonstrated. With regards to the low prevalence of autoantibodies in IBS patients from PCC, further research is required to verify whether patients who present to gastroenterology specialist clinics with IBS-like symptoms are more likely to be suffering from enteric neuropathies unlike those who present to PCCs.

CRediT author statement

Khadija Saidi: Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – Original draft, Visualization.

Clara Nilholm: Conceptualization, Methodology, Validation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing- Review & Editing.

Bodil Roth: Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Resources, Writing- Review & Editing, Supervision.

Bodil Ohlsson: Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Writing- Review & Editing, Supervision, Project administration, Funding acquisition

r/ketoscience - A carbohydrate-restricted diet for patients with irritable bowel syndrome lowers serum C-peptide, insulin, and leptin without any correlation with symptom reduction - Dec 4, 2020

Figure 3

Figure 3. a) Comparisons in carbohydrate (CHO) intake (g) at baseline and at 4 weeks after introduction of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet intervention in the control (n = 25 and n = 22, respectively) and intervention (n = 78 and n = 74, respectively) groups (Wilcoxon paired test). b) Comparisons of the changes in carbohydrate intake between the control (n = 22) and intervention (74) groups (Mann-Whitney U test). P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

r/ketoscience - A carbohydrate-restricted diet for patients with irritable bowel syndrome lowers serum C-peptide, insulin, and leptin without any correlation with symptom reduction - Dec 4, 2020

Figure 4

Figure 4. Comparisons between hormonal levels at baseline and at 4 weeks (wks) after the introduction of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet intervention, separated into the control (n = 25 23) and intervention (n = 72) groups. a) C-peptide (pg/mL), b) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) (pg/mL), c) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (pM), d) glucagon (pM), e) insulin (µIU/mL), f) leptin (pg/mL), g) luteinizing hormone (LH) (µIU/mL), and h) polypeptide YY (PYY) (pg/mL). Hormones were analyzed using electro-chemiluminescence [26]. Wilcoxon paired test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

r/ketoscience - A carbohydrate-restricted diet for patients with irritable bowel syndrome lowers serum C-peptide, insulin, and leptin without any correlation with symptom reduction - Dec 4, 2020

Figure 5. Differences in the changes between 4 weeks and baseline in the levels of a) Cpeptide (pg/mL), b) insulin (µIU/mL), and c) leptin (pg/mL) in the control (n = 23) and intervention (n = 72) groups after the introduction of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet intervention. Hormones were analyzed using electro-chemiluminescence [26]. Mann-Whitney U test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

Topic. Health and Healthy Way of Life

Posted in Healthy lifestyle
Your English Teacher: Topic. Health and Healthy Way of Life

English-speaking Countries

Topic. Health and Healthy Way of Life

Good health is very important for every
person. They say: “Health is better than wealth.” Our health is an important
subject for all of us.  How much we eat,
how much we exercise and how much we sleep are all topics of discussion when
mentioning health. Are there any practical rules for healthy living? The
formula for healthy life cannot be put into words — it can only be practiced.
Some people break the so-called health every day and escape punishment and some
look after their health and don’t live any longer in the end.
It is known that healthy people live
longer and their career is more successful. To look well you must follow some simple
rules: don’t smoke and take drugs, don’t drink alcohol, don’t eat too much junk
food as chips and sweets, eat more vegetables and fruits, sleep well, do
Everybody knows these simple rules
but we continue to stuff ourselves with fast food — chips and pizzas,
hamburgers and hot dogs. We are always in a hurry. We have no time to enjoy a
home-cooked dinner with family and friends. We want to eat now and we want to
eat fast. What is tasty is not always healthy. Doctors say that chips and
pizzas are fattening, cola spoils our teeth and coffee shortens our lives. We
should understand that food is an important part of our life. We should choose
healthy food which is not harmful for us. I am against of fast food but
sometimes I can allow having a snack when I am terribly hungry and I do not have
enough time to eat properly.  If we eat
too much, we’ll become obese, and obesity leads to heart disease, diabetes and
other serious illnesses. But the world today is getting fatter and fatter.
America is the world’s leader in obesity, but our country is quickly catching
Lack of exercise is another serious
problem. We spend hours in front of our computers and TV-sets. Few of us do
morning exercises. We walk less, because we prefer to use cars or public
transport. Research shows, however, that young people who don’t take enough
exercise often suffer from heart attacks. Remember that regular physical
activity (20 to 30 minutes a day, three or four times per week) is an important
part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent diseases and makes the quality of
life better.
It’s common knowledge that smoking
and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Cigarette-smoking, for
example, kills about 3 million people every year. Many of them die from lung
cancer. Some aren’t even smokers. They are people who live or work with heavy
smokers. Yet many young people smoke and drink. Why? One answer is that tobacco
and drinks companies invest enormous sums of money in advertising their
products. For them cigarettes and alcoholic drinks mean money. For us they mean
disease and even death. It is never too late to start anything or stop
anything. Deciding to stop smoking and drinking alcohol is deciding to choose a
healthy way of life.
Some people say that stress causes a
lot of health problems. But we should remember that stress is an essential part
of being alive — but the art of life is to arrange rules that stress does not
become strain. A little of this stress can help keep you on your toes. And the
nervous system quickly returns to its normal state. But long-term stressful situations
can produce a lasting, low-level stress that’s hard on people. If the pressure
is longlasting, the body continues to pump out extra stress hormones. This
seriously weakens the immune system. What can you do to deal with stress
overload or to avoid it? Here are some things that can help keep stress under
a stand against overscheduling;
to relax;
your body well;
what you’re thinking.
Always remember that a healthy
organism is extremely tough. It can withstand overwork, fatigue, anxiety,
microbes — up to a certain point, of course.

Perhaps these health principles seem
too theoretical, but they are golden rules which can stretch our powers and
help us in our fight against harmful genes. Scientists say that in the future
people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and better medical care the
average person will live to 90 or 100 instead of 70 and 75 like today. When the
human genome is decoded, we’ll probably live up to 150. Incurable diseases will
be cured and “bad” genes replaced. But that’s tomorrow and today we all
know that the healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the
longer we live. So why not take care of ourselves?

Exercise as it relates to Disease/Diabetes: Pharmacy vs Fitness

Posted in Healthy lifestyle
Cuboid sugar.jpg


The Study[edit]

Knowler, W., C., Barrett-Connor, E., Fowler S., E., Hamman, R.,F., Lachin, J., M., Walker, E., A., Nathan, D., M.; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2002). Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine. 346(6): 393-403.


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Type II diabetes is a condition in which an individual becomes ineffective in addressing high blood sugar levels despite producing insulin.[1] Type II diabetes is life threatening if left untreated, requiring lifelong management. Global prevalence of Type II diabetes is predicted to rise,[2] with over 1 million Australians currently diagnosed.[1] There is no current cure for type II diabetes, instead blood glucose levels are managed through medication, diet and exercise. Metformin is one such medication. Considered the number one prescribed drug for type II diabetes,[3] Metformin is poorly prescribed for prediabetes,[4] the precursor for type II diabetes. Fortunately, prediabetes is treatable, and with appropriate intervention, the progression to type II diabetes can be avoided.

The Current Study[edit]

Where Is The Research From?[edit]

The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group is responsible for the research study.[5] Clinical trials were conducted across 27 diabetes centres through the United States. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The completed study was published in The New England Journal of Medicine.[5]

What Type of Research Was This?[edit]

The Research Group conducted a randomised clinical trial involving American adults classified as prediabetic (according to the American Diabetes Association).
Randomised trials are effective at eliminating bias in treatment assignments so that a relationship between treatment and response may be inferred.[6] The test group was large and culturally diverse allowing the results to be generalized toward the wider community.

What Did The Research Involve?[edit]

A four step screening and recruiting process determined eligibility for involvement in the study, with half the participants from racial or ethnic minority groups. Exclusion criteria was applied. To be eligible, subjects must:

• Be at least 25yrs of age

• Have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 24 or higher (22 or higher in Asians)

• Have a glucose concentration between 5.3-6.9 mmol.L−1 in the fasting state, and between 7.8-11.0 mmol.L−1 two hours after a 75g oral glucose load.

3234 non diabetic persons were randomly assigned one of three intervention strategies:

Annie Thorisdottir does an l-sit.jpg

Placebo twice daily plus standard lifestyle recommendations.

Pharmaceutical (the administration of 850 mg of Metformin twice daily) plus standard lifestyle recommendations.

• Intensive program of lifestyle modification with the aim of achieving and maintain 7 percent of initial body weight through low calorie, low fat diet, and to engage in 150min of moderate intensity physical activity per week.

The primary measure of the study was the development of type II diabetes, diagnosed based upon criteria determined by the American Diabetes Association. Caloric intake was assessed using a modified version of the block food-frequency questionnaire. The placebo and pharmaceutical groups were provided with annual 20-30min individual sessions emphasising the importance of healthy lifestyle choices. The Lifestyle Intervention group were given an extensive, individualised, and culturally sensitive education program detailing diet, exercise and lifestyle choice emphasising behavioural modification. The Lifestyle Intervention group were provided continuous support highlighting the role that education plays in achieving exercise and dietary adherence.


The Basic Results[edit]

Both Metformin and Lifestyle/exercise interventions reduced the incidence of diabetes with lifestyle intervention being most effective. With an average follow up of 2.8 years, the incidence of diabetes is outlined in Table 1.2

Intervention Reduced Incidence of Diabetes (%)
Lifestyle/Exercise 58
Metformin 31
Placebo 0

Table 1.2 Intervention strategy and its effect on reducing the incidence of diabetes

What Did We Learn?[edit]

• There is a strong association between exercise and reduced incidence of Prediabetes progressing to type II diabetes, regardless of race, gender or ethnicity.[5]

• Metformin is effective in blood glucose management, but not as effective as exercise.

• Drug prescription isn’t necessary in reducing the risk of developing type II diabetes

• Education plays a significant role in behavioural modification.

Practical Advice[edit]

Despite no clear understanding of how exercise exerts its effect, the positive health benefits of regular moderate exercise is significant. There is substantial benefit to those not just at risk of developing diabetes, but to the community in general. Following the recommended exercise guidelines and eating habits can contribute greatly to reduced incidence of disease, particularly diabetes, and increase general health and well being.

Further reading[edit]

Australia’s Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines

Cellular Mechanism of Action of Metformin

Diabetes Australia

Diabetes Prevention Program Outcome Study

Recommended Dietary Intakes for Use in Australia


  1. ab Shaw, J., & Tanamas, S. (2012). Diabetes: the silent pandemic and its impact on Australia. Diabetes Australia, Canberra. https://static.diabetesaustralia.com.au/s/fileassets/diabetes-australia/e7282521-472b-4313-b18e-be84c3d5d907.pdf
  2. Shaw, J. E., Sicree, R. A., & Zimmet, P. Z. (2010). Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 87(1): 4–14
  3. Rojas, L., B., A. and Gomes, M., B. (2013). Metformin: an old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 5, 6. DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-5-6
  4. Moin T, Li J, Duru OK, Ettner S, Turk N, Keckhafer A, et al. (2015). Metformin Prescription for Insured Adults With Prediabetes From 2010 to 2012: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med, 162:542-548. doi:10.7326/M14-1773
  5. abc Knowler, W., C., Barrett-Connor, E., Fowler S., E., Hamman, R.,F., Lachin, J., M., Walker, E., A., Nathan, D., M.; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2002). Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine. 346(6): 393-403.
  6. Suresh, K. P. (2011). An overview of randomization techniques: An unbiased assessment of outcome in clinical research. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 4(1): 8–11. doi: 10.4103/0974-1208.82352

Урок англійської мови у 8 класі

Posted in Healthy lifestyle









уроку англійської мови

у 8 класі

на тему «A healthy lifestyle»











Вчитель:Черемшинська С.І

Жизномирська ЗОШ І-ІІІ ступенів





Тема: А healthy lifestyle.

Мета: узагальнити знання учнів з теми «A healthy lifestyle»,систематизувати мовний та

           мовленнєвий матеріал;збагачувати мовлення дітей стилістичними засобами мовлення

           (метафорами, порівняннями); залучати учнів до пошукової діяльності;

           розвивати навички аудіювання,читання,письма та говоріння(діалогічного та

           монологічного);формувати комунікативну компетентність учнів;удосконалювати

           пам’ять,мислення,уяву,творчі здібності;

           виховувати бажання вести здоровий спосіб життя,активно відпочивати,займатися

           спортом,знайомитися з цікавими місцями України.

Тип уроку:урок  узагальнення й систематизації знань.

Методи та прийоми:інтерактивні методи навчання: робота в парах ,в групах;проектна робота.

Обладнання: роздатковий матеріал,ТЗН(мультимедійна дошка,комп’ютер), кольорові фішки 

                      (для визначення  учасників груп),предметні малюнки до теми.

Хід уроку

І.Вступна частина

1.Психологічна підготовка учнів до уроку.

-Good  morning, children!

I’m glad to see you.

Today we have English

I wish good luck to all of you!

-How are you?

What unit do we study?

-What was your home task? (перегляд презентації)

2.Мовна зарядка.

(Карта слів)

-Think a little and say me, please, what is a healthy lifestyle?

-So, we can make the map of words.


(Використовую мультимедійну дошку- «карта слів»).

3.Повідомлення теми та плану роботи на уроці.

-So, today we’ll mention all factors that influence our lifestyles. We’ll read, write, listen to the text, speak on

the topic and make projects.

II.Основна частина

1.Актуалізація знань учнів.

 As far as you remember, we’ve learned some information about food. What food groups do you remember?

-What food do they include?

– Let’s analyze the importance of this food for our organisms.(корисні страви).

Now it’s time for the quiz “Food and Health”to see if you are good food experts.

Перевірка результатів.

2.Систематизація знань.

-Sleep is also a very important part of our health. How much time do we need for sleep?

-I’ll read you some more additional information. Your task is to guess what is  the  «darkness hormone».

a)аудіювання тексту ;

б) читання тексту(на швидкість, якість); 

в) робота в парах «Ask your friend».

Now you’ll be the agents of a company offering a new type of adventure holiday. Your task is to design a

 brochure advertising your type of adventure holidays.

г)проектна робота(поділ на групи за допомогою кольорових фішок,визначення послідовності

роботи,виконання проектів – виготовлення буклетів “Аn adventure holidays”;

3.Узагальнення знань.

Побудова речень зі словами з Word map

Уч.1-1 реч.,Уч.2-1,2 реч.,Уч.3-1,2,3…-запис речень в зошитах.

ІІІ.Заключна частина

-Our lesson is coming to the end. Much work has been done. What conclusions can you make?

-What proverbs do you remember on this topic?

Підсумок уроку.Aналіз та оцінка діяльності учнів на уроці. Домашнє завдання:закінчити роботу над

проектами,доповнити карту слів в електронному варіанті,підготуватись до контрольної роботи.


Healthy eating habits/Young Adult Nutrition: A Pathway to Health in Later Life

Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Young Adult Nutrition[edit]

The time of young adulthood, spanning the years 19 to 30, is a time when diet, body weight and lifestyle can strongly effect our future health and well-being. [1] It is therefore very important that, during this time, we maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle, and try to meet the dietary targets that have been outlined by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Meeting these targets ensures that we are getting the energy and nutrients that our bodies need, and can also help to protect us from developing certain diseases influenced by lifestyle, including cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and some cancers.[2]

Australian Guide to Healthy Eating[edit]

The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating is a food guide that provides the most current advice on the types and amounts of foods that we should be eating in order to optimise our health. This guide is made up of five major food groups that should be included in our diet everyday. These five food groups are organised on a plate model, according to the amount of our diet that each food group should make up. Each food group has a set number of serves that we should be eating per day, in order to meet our nutrient requirements and avoid deficiency.[3]

5 Major Food Groups[edit]


Examples of foods belonging to the grains/cereals food group

The grains and cereals group is the largest group on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating model, which means that the largest amount of our dietary intake should be from this food group. Some examples of food from this group include breads, breakfast cereals, rice, pasta and noodles. It is advised that at least two thirds of our intake from this food group be made up of wholegrain options over refined options such as white rice and pasta, as wholegrains offer more dietary fibre and nutrients. [2]
Major nutrients that grains provide include:

  • Carbohydrates – Important for providing our bodies with energy
  • Protein – Allows our body to make the protein that we need for our cell function
  • Fibre – Helps to regulate our digestive system
  • B-group vitamins – Essential for the mechanism of energy release in the body [4]


Vegetables are the second largest food group and this includes fresh, frozen and canned vegetable varieties, as well as legumes such as beans, lentils and chickpeas. The majority of vegetables are relatively low in energy, but are also very high in vitamins and minerals so they are very beneficial to our diet. [2]
Such nutrients include:

  • Vitamin A – Necessary for cell growth and optimal vision
  • Vitamin E – An antioxidant which helps protect cells from the damage of free radicals
  • Vitamin C – Also an antioxidant but also plays an important role in strengthening our resistance to infection
  • Folate – Necessary for new cell growth [4]

Meat/Meat Alternatives[edit]

This food group includes lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, nut & seeds, and legumes & beans.[2] Nutrients that are found in abundance in this food group include:

  • Protein
  • Iron – Allows for the availability of oxygen in the blood and muscles
  • Zinc – Necessary for growth & development as well as playing an important role in our immune function
  • Omega 3’s – Provided by fish, they are essential for normal growth and development, particularly of the eyes and brain [4]

Dairy/Dairy Alternatives[edit]

The dairy group includes milk, cheese, yoghurt and calcium fortified products such as soy milk. It is advised that we choose mostly reduced fat options as full fat dairy varieties can increase the saturated fat and kilojoule content of the diet. [2]
Dairy foods are rich in:

  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium

Which are all important contributors to bone and teeth health. [4]


Examples of types of foods found in fruit food group

The fruit food group includes fresh, frozen, canned and dried varieties of fruit. It is recommended that dried fruit and fruit juices be limited as both can contribute to tooth decay, and fruit juices are high in kilojoules and lack dietary fibre. [2]
Fruit is a major source of nutrients such as:

  • Fibre
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamin C
  • Folate [4]

Serve Requirements[edit]

Food group Serves per day women aged 19-50 years Serves per day men aged 19-50 years Serve example [2]
Grains/Cereals 6 6 1/2 cup rice-pasta-noodles, 3/4 cup cereal, 1 slice bread
Vegetables 5 6 1/2 cup cooked vegetables, 1 cup salad vegetables, 1/2 medium potato
Meat/Alternatives 2.5 3 65g cooked red meat, 1/2 cup lentils, 2 large eggs
Dairy 2.5 2.5 1 cup of milk, 200g yoghurt, 2 slices (40g) cheese
Fruit 2 2 1 medium piece e.g. apple, 2 small pieces e.g. apricots

Additional Resources[edit]

If you would like any further information on dietary recommendations or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, the following resources may be helpful:

  • Australian Dietary Guidelines [1]
  • Australian Guide to Healthy Eating [2]


  1. Brown, J. E. (2014). Nutrition through the life cycle. Stamford, USA: Yolanda Cossio
  2. abcdefg National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian Dietary Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines_130530.pdf
  3. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Retrieved from http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines/australian-guide-healthy-eating
  4. abcde Whitney, E., Rady Rolfes, S., Crowe,T., Cameron-Smith, D., & Walsh, A. (2011). Understanding Nutrition. South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia

Synonyms and Antonyms for healthy

Posted in Healthy lifestyle


1. healthy























































healthy (English)

-y (English)

-y (Middle English (1100-1500))

health (English)

helthe (Middle English (1100-1500))

hælþ (Old English (ca. 450-1100))

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2. heart-healthy
























3. healthy













healthy (English)

-y (English)

-y (Middle English (1100-1500))

health (English)

helthe (Middle English (1100-1500))

hælþ (Old English (ca. 450-1100))

4. healthy






good for you






natural object



healthy (English)

-y (English)

-y (Middle English (1100-1500))

health (English)

helthe (Middle English (1100-1500))

hælþ (Old English (ca. 450-1100))

5. healthy

























healthy (English)

-y (English)

-y (Middle English (1100-1500))

health (English)

helthe (Middle English (1100-1500))

hælþ (Old English (ca. 450-1100))

6. healthy





















healthy (English)

-y (English)

-y (Middle English (1100-1500))

health (English)

helthe (Middle English (1100-1500))

hælþ (Old English (ca. 450-1100))

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Health Club in Cheyenne, WY

Posted in Healthy lifestyle
Health Club Summary:

A health club is a fitness center designed to improve fitness levels, typically through physical exercise. Health clubs have evolved from the traditional gym to include more than just free weights in order to offer more services to their clientele. While most
health clubs require an annual membership fee, some additional services may cost extra, either in an additional monthly rate or often at time of service. Additional options and resources might include swimming pools, ball courts, boxing, yoga, massage, and various group classes.

Health clubs may have a few or many offered services. These include weights and workout machines that involve isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic muscle training, various group exercise classes such as aerobics, pilates, or dance, and personal trainers. Additional services may also be available.

Conditions Treated:

A health club can help reduce and prevent obesity and help people with weight loss. Services provided by a fitness facility may increase strength, endurance, and muscle mass. By working out with weight bearing equipment, individuals may also increase bone mass, which may help reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis.

Health Club Specialties:

Health clubs may focus on one type of activity, such as free weights or a specific type of exercise. For example, it is not rare to find a yoga studio that focuses on the health aspects and instruction of various types of yoga.

Health Club Services:

Most health clubs offer the services of a personal trainer at an additional cost. A personal trainer can help give individualized attention, motivation, and advice on each individual’s specific needs to reach the desired goals. Other services may include swimming pools, sports facilities, snack bars or cafeterias, sauna, wellness areas, massage, nutritionists, and spa type services, all of which may involve an extra cost to the client.

Health Club Details:

Most of the employees will have some type of education, training, or certification for their specific job title. A personal trainer may have taken a training program of a college degree program prior to passing the certification examination. Dietitians or nutritionists typically have a bachelor degree, with some states requiring licensing as well. Other employee duties may have education and training requirements as well.

Health Club Associations:

Associations are voluntary and usually require an annual membership fee. Assocations such as
IHRSA – International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association and MIHCA – National Independent Health Club Association.

Health Club FAQs:

What are the benefits of joining a health club?
Clients get access to exercise classes and equipment, as well as personal attention and instruction. In addition, clients may get motivation and companionship by working out at a health club.

Aren’t health clubs expensive?
They can be. However, there are more affordable options among various clubs. To reduce your costs, explore the different clubs, initiation fees, and annual cost. Avoid extras you do not need and take advantage of offered promotions.

What sort of classes are available at a health club?
It depends on the gym. Some common classes are pilates, yoga, spin, cycling, thai bo kick boxing, aerobics, senior classes, boot camp classes, cycling, everlast shadow box, mind/body classes, senior classes, strength training, and water classes like swimming and water polo.

What types of health clubs are in the wellness.com directory?
Use Wellness.com’s local directory to find a gym, fitness studio, exercise center, fitness center, yoga studio, kick boxing, aquatic exercise, swimming, sauna, pool, weights, free weights, health club, hot tub, work out, or fitness trainer in your city.

How do I find a Health Club in my city and state?
The wellness.com directory will help you locate a Health Club in your state. Select Health Club from the Professionals menu and select the state and city in which you are looking to locate a Health Club.

Health Club Related Terms:

Gym, fitness club, health center, fitness studio, exercise center, exercise, fitness center, yoga, kick boxing, aquatic exercise, swimming, sauna, pool, weights, free weights, health club, hot tub, work out, trainer, fitness trainer