Slagter SN, van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Vonk JM, Boezen HM, Dullaart RP, Kobold ACM, Feskens EJ, van Beek AP, van der Klauw MM, Wolffenbuttel BH. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e96406.
van Oostrom SH, Smit HA, Wendel-Vos GW, Visser M, Verschuren WM, Picavet HSJ. Adopting an active lifestyle during adulthood and health-related quality of life: the Doetinchem cohort study. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(11):e62–8.
Bhaskaran K, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Douglas IJ, Smeeth L. Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018:6(12):944–53.
May AM, Struijk EA, Fransen HP, Onland-Moret NC, de Wit GA, Boer JM, van der Schouw YT, Hoekstra J, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, et al. The impact of a healthy lifestyle on disability-adjusted life years: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med. 2015;13:39.
King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Carnemolla M, Everett CJ. Adherence to healthy lifestyle habits in US adults, 1988-2006. Am J Med. 2009;122(6):528–34.
Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1· 9 million participants. Lancet Global Health. 2018:6(10):e1077–86.
World Health Organization, Tobacco [https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco]. Retrieved at 10 Oct 2019.
Gakidou E, Afshin A, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abdulle AM, Abera SF, Aboyans V. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2016. Lancet. 2017;390(10100):1345–422.
World Health Organization, Alcohol [https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/alcohol]. Retrieved at 10 Oct 2019.
World Health Organization, Physical activity [https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/physical-activity]. Retrieved at 10 Oct 2019.
Spring B, Moller AC, Coons MJ. Multiple health behaviours: overview and implications. J Public Health. 2012;34(suppl_1):i3–i10.
Xu WH, Zhang XL, Gao YT, Xiang YB, Gao LF, Zheng W, Shu XO. Joint effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on mortality. Prev Med. 2007;45(4):313–9.
Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Preston-Martin S, Bernstein L, Schoenberg JB, Stemhagen A, Fraumeni JF. Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res. 1988;48(11):3282–7.
Noble N, Paul C, Turon H, Oldmeadow C. Which modifiable health risk behaviours are related? A systematic review of the clustering of smoking, nutrition, alcohol and physical activity (‘SNAP’) health risk factors. Prev Med. 2015;81:16–41.
Kovač VB, Rise J. The relation between past behavior, intention, planning, and quitting smoking: the moderating effect of future orientation. J Appl Biobehav Res. 2007;12(2):82–100.
Brassai L, Pikó B. The role of protective psychological variables in adolescents’ health-related behaviors. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika. 2007;8(3):211–27.
Adams J, Nettle D. Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: an empirical study. Br J Health Psychol. 2009;14(1):83–105.
Iversen H. Risk-taking attitudes and risky driving behaviour. Transport Res F: Traffic Psychol Behav. 2004;7(3):135–50.
Manor O, Matthews S, Power C. Self-rated health and limiting longstanding illness: inter-relationships with morbidity in early adulthood. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(3):600–7.
Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav. 1997:38(1):21–37.
Abu-Omar K, Rütten A, Robine J-M. Self-rated health and physical activity in the European Union. Soz Präventivmed. 2004;49(4):235–42.
Molarius A, Berglund K, Eriksson C, Lambe M, Nordström E, Eriksson HG, Feldman I. Socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health among men and women in Sweden. Eur J Public Health. 2006;17(2):125–33.
Kuosmanen K, Rovio S, Kivipelto M, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Kulmala J. Determinants of self-rated health and self-rated physical fitness in middle and old age. Eur J Mental Health. 2016;11:128–43.
Tsai J, Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Pearson WS, Balluz LS. Multiple healthy behaviors and optimal self-rated health: findings from the 2007 behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. Prev Med. 2010;51(3–4):268–74.
Nicholls N, Zimper A. Subjective life expectancy. In: The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging; 2015. p. 1–5.
Wardle J, Steptoe A. Socioeconomic differences in attitudes and beliefs about healthy lifestyles. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57(6):440–3.
Rappange DR, Brouwer WBF, van Exel J. A long life in good health: subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life. Eur J Health Econ. 2016;17(5):577–89.
CBS: Leefstijl en (preventief) gezondheidsonderzoek; persoonskenmerken. In., 06-04-2018 edn. Den Haag/Heerlen; 2016.
Health Council tN. Guidelines for a healthy diet 2006. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands; 2006.
Hildebrandt V, Bernaards C, Stubbe J. Bewegen en Gezondheid 2010/2011; 2013.
Kemper HOW, Stiggelbout M. Consensus over de Nederlandse norm voor gezond bewegen. TSG: Tijdschrijft voor gezondheidswetenschappen. 2000;78(3):180–3.
Strathman A, Gleicher F, Boninger DS, Edwards CS. The consideration of future consequences: weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994;66(4):742.
Joireman J, Shaffer MJ, Balliet D, Strathman A. Promotion orientation explains why future-oriented people exercise and eat healthy: evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences-14 scale. Personal Soc Psychol Bull. 2012;38(10):1272–87.
Rappange DR, Brouwer WB, van Exel NJ. Back to the consideration of future consequences scale: time to reconsider? J Soc Psychol. 2009;149(5):562–84.
Joireman J, Balliet D, Sprott D, Spangenberg E, Schultz J. Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion, and self-control: support for distinguishing between CFC-immediate and CFC-future sub-scales. Personal Individ Differ. 2008;45(1):15–21.
Petrocelli JV. Factor validation of the consideration of future consequences scale: evidence for a short version. J Soc Psychol. 2003;143(4):405–13.
van Osch SMC, Stiggelbout AM. The development of the health-risk attitude scale. Leiden: Leiden University; 2007. pp. 117–38.
Huls SPIvO SMC, Brouwer WBF, Van Exel NJA, Stiggelbouw AM. The Health-Risk Attitude Scale HRAS-13: A valid and reliable measure of health-risk attitudes; 2018.
Bender R, Lange S. Adjusting for multiple testing—when and how? J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54(4):343–9.
Cox DRS, E.J. The analysis of binary data. 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1989.
Nagelkerke NJ. A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika. 1991;78(3):691–2.
Statistics-Netherlands: Lifestyle and (preventive) health research; personal characteristics. In., 06-04-2018 edn. The Hague/Heerlen: CBS; 2018.
Daugherty JR, Brase GL. Taking time to be healthy: predicting health behaviors with delay discounting and time perspective. Personal Individ Differ. 2010;48(2):202–7.
Dassen FC, Houben K, Jansen A. Time orientation and eating behavior: unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health. Appetite. 2015;91:13–9.
Hills P, Argyle M. Positive moods derived from leisure and their relationship to happiness and personality. Personal Individ Differ. 1998;25(3):523–35.
Slovic P. What does it mean to know a cumulative risk? Adolescents’ perceptions of short-term and long-term consequences of smoking. J Behav Decis Mak. 2000;13(2):259–66.
Conry MC, Morgan K, Curry P, McGee H, Harrington J, Ward M, Shelley E. The clustering of health behaviours in Ireland and their relationship with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):692.
Viscusi WK. Do smokers underestimate risks? J Polit Econ. 1990;98(6):1253–69.
Viscusi WK. Age variations in risk perceptions and smoking decisions. Rev Econ Stat. 1991:73(4):577–88.
Viscusi WK. Smoking: making the risky decision: Oxford university press on demand; 1992.
Schoenbaum M. Do smokers understand the mortality effects of smoking? Evidence from the health and retirement survey. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(5):755–9.
Ross CE, Mirowsky J. Family relationships, social support and subjective life expectancy. J Health Soc Behav. 2002:43(4):469–89.
MOHWA, Sport. Dutch medical research involving human subjects act (WMO). Int Publ Ser Health, Welfare Sport. 1997;2:1–34.