Getting Ready for Exams

I. Reading

1. Read the text

VEGETARIANS

A vegetarian is someone who avoids eating the flesh of animals (meat,
poultry, or fish, including shellfish). Most vegetarians will also not eat eggs or cheese
or use cosmetics or toiletries made that contain animal ingredients or are tested on
animals. The word “vegetarian”, coined around 1842, comes not from “vegetable” but
from the Latin word vegetus meaning “whole, fresh, full of life”.
People are vegetarians for a number of reasons. Some think that it is wrong to keep and
kill animals for use as food and in other products. Others choose to be vegetarians
because they believe that a vegetarian diet is healthier than a diet that includes meat.
Indeed, a vegetarian diet fits in very well with modern medical advice to cut down on
fats, salt, and sugar, and to eat more fibre and fresh vegetables. It is also cheaper than
meat. Some people are vegetarian because of their religious beliefs. Some people have
chosen to be vegetarian for ecological reasons. They argue that the growing of vegetables
takes up much less valuable space than the raising of livestock; moreover, it is easier to
provide food for all the people on Earth by growing vegetables for food rather than
raising vegetable-eating animals.

livestock домашний скот

This paragraph summarises the text. Put one missing words in each gap
to make the paragraph complete.

A vegetarian is someone who (1)_________ eating meat. The word
“vegetarian” comes from the Latin word vegetus (2)_________ “whole, fresh, full of
life”. According to the text people (3)_________ to be vegetarians for six reasons. Here
they are:

1. It’s (4)_________ to kill animals for food.

2. A vegetarian diet is (5)________ than a diet that includes meat.

3. A vegetarian diet is (6)________ than a diet that includes meat.

4. Some people are vegetarian because of their (7)_______ beliefs.

5. Some people have (8)_________ to be vegetarian for ecological
reasons.

6. It’s easier to grow vegetables than to raise vegetable-eating
animals to (9)_________ food for all the people.

2. Read the text

WHAT IS A CALORIE?

Nowadays, it seems, everybody is “watching their calories”. There
are even restaurants which print the number of calories each dish contains right on the
menu. To understand what a calorie is and the part it plays in the body, let’s start
with the subject of nutrition in general.
Today, science is still not able to explain exactly how a cell transforms food into
energy. We just know it happens. And we also can’t explain why the cell in the body
needs certain foods, and not others, in order to function properly.
We do know that food is broken down in the body by combining with oxygen. We might say it
is ‘burned” up like fuel. Now, the way we measure the work a fuel does is by means of
calories.
A “gram calorie” is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram
of water one degree centigrade. The “large calorie” is 1,000 times as great. In
measuring the energy value of food, we usually use large calorie.
Each type of food, as it “burns up”, furnishes a certain number of calories. For
instance, one gram of protein furnishes four calories, but one gram of fat furnishes nine
calories. The body doesn’t care which “fuel” is used for energy, as long as it gets
enough of that energy from food to maintain life.
The amount of calories the body needs depends on the work the body is doing. For example,
a man who weighs 150 pounds needs only 1,680 calories per day if he is in a state of
absolute rest. If he does moderate work such as desk work, he needs 3,360 calories per
day. And if he does heavy work, he may need as much as 6,720 calories a day to keep the
body functioning properly.
Children need more calories than adults, since older people can’t burn the fuel as
quickly. Interestingly enough, we use up more calories in winter than in summer. Suppose,
however, we take in more fuel than we need? The body uses up what it needs and stores some
of it away for future use. The body can store away about one-third of the amount it needs
each day. The rest becomes fat! And that’s why we “watch our calories”.

1) Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

a) A caloric count down
b) What is a calorie?
c) Everybody is watching their calories

2) According to the passage, which of the following is true?

a) A calorie helps us to understand why the cell in the body needs
certain foods, and not others, in order to function properly.
b) The body cares which “fuel” is used for energy.
c) We don’t know how a cell transforms food into energy.

3) According to the passage, how does the body use the fuel it
doesn’t need?

a) it becomes added weight
b) it stores it away for future use
c) it burns it but not so quickly

II. Listening

1. Listen to this passage and choose the best answer for the question
below.

A NO SMOKING DAY

…Giving up smoking is a good idea – in fact, it is one of the most
important things that someone can do to improve his or her health. I recommended having a
No Smoking Day. And it took place at the end of April at my school. But we found that
nothing unusual resulted. Nothing had changed – smokers think that a lack of nicotine
means that they are more likely to have problems at school or at home if they try to give
up smoking.
As you see, some of my friends think that No Smoking Day could damage one’s health.

Which of the following statements is NOT supported by the passage?

a) they think that lack of nicotine resulted in problems at school and
at home
b) they won’t try to give up smoking
c) they will try to give up smoking and improve their health

2. Listen to the text.

INDOOR POLLUTION

It has been known since ancient times that there is a link between
pollution and poor health. Many scientists believe our health is in trouble because we
have been polluting the earth’s land, air and water for too long. But most citizens have
the greatest contact with toxic pollutants not outside but inside their homes, offices and
cars.
The main sources of indoor pollutants are right under people’s noses – dry-cleaned
clothes, dusty carpets, paint, fumes from cooking, and heating and cigarette smoke. Of
course, this list is incomplete.
Indoor air and house dust contain poisons that can be tracked in on people’s shoes.
Carpets are most troublesome. They act as deep reservoirs for pollutants, dangerous
bacteria and asthma-inducing allergens even if they are vacuumed regularly. Wiping one’s
feet on a door-mat reduces the amount of pollutants in a carpet by a factor of six.
Removing one’s shoes before entering is even more effective than just wiping one’s
shoes. These preventative acts are very simple but effective.

Complete the sentences with a word or phrase.

1. It has been known since ancient times that there is a link between
pollution and _________.

2. Most citizens have the greatest contact with toxic pollutants
_________ their homes, offices and cars.

3. The main sources of _________ are right under people’s noses.

4. _________ are most troublesome.

5. They act as deep reservoirs _________.

6. Wiping one’s feet on a door-mat reduces the amount of pollutants
_________ by a factor of six.

7. ________ before entering is even more effective than just wiping
one’s shoes.

III. Vocabulary

1. A. Match words with their equivalents.

1. to avoid

2. to coin
3. to furnish
4. to maintain
5. nutrition
6. amount
7. properly
8. moderate

a) the act or process by which organisms
absorb into their systems their proper food
b) to keep away from
c) to make, fabricate or invent
d) the sum total of two or more quantities
e) rightly, correctly
f) to provide
g) to support
h) not extreme

B. Make the sentences complete using the words from A.

1. The word “vegetarian” _______ around 1842, comes not from
“vegetable” but from the Latin word vegetus meaning “whole, fresh, full of life”.

2. One gram of protein _______ four calories.

3. The ______ of calories the body needs depends on the work the body
is doing.

4. Professor Johnson specialises in the science of __________.

5. The body doesn’t care which “fuel” is used for energy ________
life.

6. A vegetarian is someone who ________ eating meat, poultry, or fish.

7. He holds _______ rather than extreme or radical opinions.

8. If you do heavy work, you may need as much as 6,720 calories a day
to keep the body functioning __________.

2. A. Complete the table.

verb

noun

adjective

 

 

1 thoughtful
2

xxxx

mystery

 

represent

1
2

 

influence

 

1
2

 

increase

 

 

 

decreasing

 

face

 

attract

 

 

 

 

preventive

B. Complete these sentences using one of the words from the table
above. Don’t forget to use the correct form of the verbs.

1. The United States is ______ a temperature rise of 5 to 10 degrees.

2. Warmer weather might make some areas more ________ and other less
so.

3. The most important ______ on the weather of the future is likely to
be global warming.

4. We don’t know how ________ such warming.

5. The book is intended for ______ people.

6. Russia has always been a country of mystery and _______ for
foreigners.

7. Winston Churchill once said that Russia “is a riddle wrapped in a
________ inside an enigma (загадочное непостижимое
явление)”.

8. It was very _______ of you to meet me – I’m very grateful.

9. The audience didn’t like the unusual _______ of Hamlet.

10. His fears haven’t ________ despite the new sucurity.

11. They predicted that unemployment ________.

12. Why do you think that teen problems will _______?

IV. Phrasal Verbs

A. Match phrasal verbs with their Russian equivalents.

1. to cut down on
2. to cut down
3. to cut out
4. to cut up

a) прекратить,
перестать что-либо делать, отказаться от
b) сокращать потребление
c) сокращать, снижать
d) разрезать

B. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the
phrasal verbs above.

1. The doctor told me to __________ meat.
2. He’s trying to __________ cigarettes.
3. He __________ his sleep to six hours.
4. A child has to have his food __________ for him.

V. Grammar

ADJECTIVE ORDER

When there is more than one adjective before a noun, the order of the
adjectives is usually:

opinion (irritating)
size (smallish)
age (old)
shape (round)
colour (pink)
origin (from where) (English)
material (made of) (handmade, leather)
purpose (use) (shopping)
noun (toy)

You usually don’t use more than three adjectives before a noun.

1. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order.

Example: an European-style leather jacket (brown)
a brown European-style leather jacket

1. heart-shaped white chocolates (tasty)
2. a dark object (mysterious)
3. an international student (qualified)
4. a huge black monster (ugly)
5. a brand-new coffee-coloured wool pullover (Iceland)
6. a young jazz singer (interesting)
7. a glorious, action-packed adventure (comedy)

THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Irregular forms

Comparative

Superlative

late later (более поздний)
latter (последний из двух упомянутых)

latest (последний, очередной)
last (самый последний,больше не будет)

old older (старший по возрасту)
elder (старший по рождению: о детях, братьях,
сестрах…)

oldest (старейший, самый старый)
eldest (самый старший)

far farther (указание на расстояние)
further (указание на расстояние и дополнение)

farthest (указание на расстояние)
furthest (указание на расстояние и дополнение)

little less
lesser

least

next следующий по порядку,
соседний

2. Choose the right form to complete the sentences. In some sentences
both forms are right.

1. Do you have the (latest/last) edition of English-Russian Dictionary
of Finance?
2. It is the (less/lesser) of two evils.
3. Is this building the (oldest/eldest) in the city?
4. My father has got (less/lesser) patience than my mother.
5. My (elder/older) brother has come up with his answer yet.
6. Have you heard the (last/latest) news?
7. His (last/latest) film is very popular. What is he shooting now?
8. What was the (last/latest) film you saw?
9. He doesn’t think of his (further/farther) education.
10. I’ll phone you if I have (further/farther) information.
11. When is the (last/latest) bus?
12. Is ‘Holiday Inn’ the (nearest/next) stop?

VI. Speaking

1. Your classmate doesn’t look well. He has a runny nose. It is
probably a cold. But his temperature is normal and he doesn’t want to go to the doctor.
He wants to use some folk remedies. You can advise something useful. You begin the
conversation.

Sample

Y – you; C – your classmate

Y: You look ill. You have a runny nose, don’t you? Your eyes
are red. Have you taken your temperature?
C: I don’t feel well. But my temperature is normal.
Y: Evidently you have a cold. If I were you, I’d stay home from school. Why
don’t you go to the doctor?
C: I’d love to, but I can’t. We have a test in maths. I have to write it.
Y: You’d better go to bed and take some medicine. At least, aspirin: besides, it
is contagious.
C: I don’t like tablets. I’d rather use some home remedies: hot tea with honey
and raspberry jam.
Y: Drink hot chicken soup. It clears the head and the nose. They say it is good for
a cold.
C: What other useful home remedies do you know?
Y: Rub oil on the chest. I know a recipe for nose drops to stop a runny nose: mix
together carrot juice with vegetable oil and garlic juice. Try to use them several times
in the evening and you’ll be much better the next day. I’m sure these drops work
wonders.

2. Study the table below and give advice how to treat people with
hypothermia.

Must

Mustn’t

Try to get medical help

Let the victim walk

Move the victim to a dry place

Warm the victim by rubbing his/her skin

Replace wet clothing with dry

Give the victim alcohol

Give a warm (not hot) drink

Warm the victim by applying direct heat

If the victim is well enough place in a warm (not hot)
bath

 

TEST

I. Read the texts below and look carefully at each line. Some of the
lines are correct, and some have a word which shouldn’t be there. If a line is correct
put a letter R. If a line has a word which shouldn’t be there, write the word.

susceptible подверженный
to take toll on наносить урон
salvation спасение

WHEN A COLD SEASON IS AROUND THE CORNER

1 The lack of vitamins and sunlight takes its toll on people making
2 them susceptible to colds and flu. This year, as is usual, doctors expect
3 seasonal influenza. How should people to prepare themselves?
4 Very simply: by gradually building up of their immunity. Sun,
5 fresh air, and water will help to you. An incremental decrease
6 in water temperature, hot/cold showers, exercise and
7 sunbathing will be your salvation. You have to get your body
8 used to some radical temperature changes, and you should not be
9 afraid of the cold and drafts. Contrasting showers are wonderful.
10 The body needs minor stresses: stand under a warm shower,
11 then under a cold one for a few some seconds.
12 Do not forget to keep your immunity up. Take off normal doses of
13 vitamin C as a preventive measure, but if you have feel you are
14 coming down with an illness, take an entire gram at a time.

II. Read the text and think of the word which best fits each space.
Use only one word in each space.

sea-buckthorn облепиха

FOLK REMEDIES FOR COLDS AND FIU

Preventive measures

Fresh garlic is very beneficial. Eat two or three cloves every three
hours (1)______ a preventive measure. Thanks (2)______ their high content of protein, nuts
also increase resistance.

Runny nose

Nose drops to stop a runny nose can (3)_______ made from one part
fresh-squeezed carrot (4)_______, one part vegetable oil, and (5)_______ few drops of
garlic juice, mixed together. Use several (6)______ a day.

Coughs

Beet syrup works wonders. Wash the beet, clean (7)_______, cut it,
remove the heart, fill the cavity (8)______ sugar, and place it (9)______ the oven. The
resulting beet (10)_______ is very tasty, and relieves a (11)______.

Laryngitis

Take one tablespoon each of sea-buckthorn oil and olive (12)____, hold
the mixture in the throat, and lie on your back (13)____ a short while.

Colds

Mix finely minced garlic (14)______ honey. Take one tablespoon every
hour. For flu, take one tablespoon (15)______ bedtime, with warm water.

III. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best
fits each space.

airborne переносимый по воздуху
pollen цветочная пыльца
ragweed амброзия полыннолистная

MISCONCEPTIONS AHD FACTS ABOUT HAY FEVER

Hey fever is a seasonal allergy to pollens; the term hay fever,
(1)_______, is less than an adequate description (2)_______ an attack can be (3)_______ on
by sources other than hay-producing grasses. Hay fever is generally caused (4)_______
airborne pollens, particularly ragweed pollen. The amount of pollen in the air is largely
(5)_______ on geographical location, weather, and season. In the eastern (6)_______ of the
United States, for example, there are generally three (7)________ when pollen from various
sources can (8)_________ intense hay fever suffering: in the springtime months of March
and April when pollen from trees fills the (9)________, in the summer months of June and
July when grass pollen fills the air, and at the end of August when ragweed pollen is at
its (10)________ concentrated level.

IV. Choose the answer A, B, C or D that best complete each sentence.

1. Professor Johnson _______ eating habits of children since 1999.

A. has investigated
B. has been investigating
C. is investigating
D. had investigated

2. Though meat provides a range of proteins and vitamins that are
essential for a healthy body, she _________ it for a long time.

A. has not been eating
B. has been eating
C. was eating
D. wasn’t eating

3. He’s given up smoking, ______?

A. hasn’t he
B. does he
C. isn’t he
D. he hasn’t

4. You’d better make a carrot salad and eat it with a beefsteak, ___?

A. would you
B. hadn’t you
C. wouldn’t you
D. you hadn’t

5. He ______ fat if he stopped exercising.

A. will be fat
B. is fat
C. would be
D. had been fat

6. _____ eating habits in Russia changed recently?

A. Why
B. How much
C. Is
D. Have

KEY:

I. 1. 1. avoids; 2. meaning; 3. choose; 4. wrong; 5. healthier;
6. cheaper; 7. religious; 8. chosen; 9. provide
2. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a
II. 1. c
2. 1. poor health; 2. not outside but inside; 3. indoor pollutants; 4. Carpets; 5.
for pollutants; 6. in a carpet; 7. Removing one’s shoes
III. 1. A. 1. b; 2. c; 3. f; 4. g; 5. a; 6. d; 7. e; 8. h
B. 1. coined; 2. furnishes; 3. amount; 4. nutrition; 5. to maintain; 6. avoids; 7.
moderate; 8. properly

2. A.

verb

noun

adjective

think

thought

1 thoughtful
2 thoughtless

xxxx

mystery

mysterious

represent

1 representation
2 representative

representative

influence

influence

influential

increase

increase

increasing

decrease

decrease

decreasing

face

face

facial

attract

attraction

attractive

prevent

prevention

preventive

B. 1. facing; 2. attractive; 3. influence; 4. to prevent; 5.
influential thoughtful; 6. attraction; 7. mystery; 8. thoughtful; 9. representation; 10.
decreased; 11. would increase; 12. increase/decrease
IV. A. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. d
B. 1. 1/3; 2. 1/3; 3. 2; 4. 4.
V. 1. 1. tasty, heart-shaped, white chocolates; 2. a dark mysterious object; 3. a
qualified international student; 4. an ugly, huge, black monster; 5. a brand-new,
coffee-coloured, Icelandic wool pullover; 6. an interesting, young, jazz singer; 7. a
glorious, action-packed, comedy adventure
2. 1. latest; 2. the lesser; 3. oldest; 4. less; 5. elder; 6. latest; 7. latest; 8.
last; 9. further; 10. further; 11. last; 12. next
VI. 2. Hypothermia means very low body temperature (under 35 degree). If you find a
person with hypothermia, you must get expert medical help. But you must begin first aid
immediately. Make sure that the victim is dry. You mustn’t try to warm him/her by
rubbing or applying direct heat. Give the victim a warm drink – but you mustn’t give
him/her anything alcoholic. Don’t allow the victim to walk. If he/she is well enough,
you should put him/her in a warm bath.

TEST

I. 1. R; 2. is; 3. to; 4. of; 5. to; 6. R; 7. R; 8. some; 9.
the; 10. R; 11. some; 12. off; 13. have; 14. R
II. 1. as; 2. to; 3. be; 4. juice; 5. a; 6. times; 7. it; 8. with; 9. in; 10.
syrup; 11. cough; 12. oil; 13. for; 14. with; 15. at
III. 1. C; 2. A; 3. D; 4. A; 5. B; 6. C; 7. C; 8. A; 9. D; 10. B
IV. 1. B; 2. A; 3. A; 4. B; 5. C; 6. D

By Youdif Boyarskaya,
Moscow, School No. 814

 

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