Healthy Lifestyle Essay,English Composition Writing on Healthy Lifestyle,Example Healthy Lifestyle Essays


The magazine ad placed in Teen Vogue pictures a stunning young woman
in a short and sexy one-piece halter skirt, confidently showing off
her perfect tan. She flashes a gorgeous smile, and has her chin
resting against her hand, visually suggesting, Look at me.
Primarily teen girls and young women read Teen Vogue. Placing this
ad in a magazine targeting this audience suggest Teen Vogue is
concerned about skin cancer, and wants to stress their concern by
illustrating an appealing alternative in their ad. According to Dr.
Audrey Kunin, diplomat of the American board of Dermatology, the
earlier people develop ultraviolet skin damage, the more apt it is
that they will develop melanoma, a form of cancer. Since most
tanning bed users are under the age of 30, this ad is aimed towards
them. The white background of the ad places all the attention on the
woman. It causes her radiant and natural-looking skin to stand out,
just as many women want to stand out in society today. The
successful aftermath shown through the image of a knockout beauty,
and the alternative technique present to obtain a natural-looking
tan without abusing your skin with ultraviolet ray allures
customers. Customers are intrigued by a healthy method for
acquiring a tan, and are assured efficient flawless results through
the satisfied smile of the model.

The casual and sporty tennis-like skirt worn by the modes suggest
athleticism and a leisure type of lifestyle. Playing tennis or
another outdoor sport is an ideal opportunity to get a tan, but with
Neutrogena Bronzer player can focus on their games rather than
acquiring a copper tone. Free time to play tennis suggests a
relaxing lifestyle. Why not make you life more relaxing and
stress-free with Neutrogena Bronzer? According to the U.S.
Department of Public Health and Human Services, it seems to be
common sense to apply sunscreen when being exposed to the sun, but
few people realize the potential dangers associated with the use of
tanning beds Neutrogena provide the same result you would receive
from tanning beds, sun bathing, or tanning pills, but in a safer,
quicker, easier procedure. The relaxed and glowing disposition of
the woman persuades customers to recognize this quick and easy
product. This product offers instant results leaving time for other
satisfactions to attend to.

Applying self-tanner may seem unusual, complicated, and unnatural to
many, but Neutrogena stops at nothing to promote this product as a
quick and easy procedure. The ad offers choices, which are appealing
to consumers. Two well-designed bottles appear on the page. The
consumer is given the option of selecting foam or lotion instant
bronzer. It causes them to believe that having the option of making
a decision will distinguish them from other buyers. Both bottles are
golden with bronze covers. The colors are attractive to the buyers
who want their color tone to resemble these vibrant, creamy shades.
Are you still a bit indecisive about self-tanner? Neutrogena
presents an easy step-by-step application video on their website.

Curious about this Instant Bronze Video, I explored the website. An
introduction by Elizabeth Brous intrigues the reader by proposing
different events, such as prom night, that consumers would want to
attend with a glimmering perfect tan. She writes the bad news of a
true tanfest could result in a higher risk of cancer, and
wrinkling at an early age. Of course, tanning salons are going to
claim their bulbs are safe, but why wouldnt they? Before fawning
over the gorgeous sun god pictured on the brochures of these salons,
look into the future and recognize the consequences your health may
pay. Brous saves the day with the alternative of obtaining a glossy
golden tan instantly without skin cancer risks. The bronzers
described as high-tech formulas exhibits them with an air of
sophistication, as if dermatologists tested and blended these
lotions to the ultimate perfection. Mandy Moore, an influential
singer and actress, models her sunless tan in a simple, yet classy
silver fitted dress. Her dazzling smile reflects her happiness with
the results, and urges those consumers inspired by her to buy the
product.

Celebrities have a huge effect on the products we buy. We are
influences by the new trends and styles they set. Everyone wants to
be like a celebrity, so we do everything we can to interpret this
advertisement as a safe technique for obtaining and maintaining an
eye-catching tan that will reward users with the admiration and
fascination given to the model.

Essay Example 2: Lifestyle and Behaviors


Approaches to a
Healthy
Lifestyle

The present lifestyle of many Americans is such a threat to their
health that the choices they make
actually lead to premature illness and death.  Although improving
ones quality of life is a personal choice, following some of the
most basic steps could actually add years on to ones life.
       
To enjoy a healthy lifestyle, a person should practice
behaviors that could lead to positive outcomes.  Wellness requires a
balance among physical, emotional, intellectual, social,
environmental, occupational, and spiritual well-being.  The
following are ten simple lifestyle habits that can increase
longevity significantly:

1.      Physical activity, including exercise
2.      No tobacco use
3.      Eating a healthy diet
4.      Maintaining ones recommended body weight
5.      Getting 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night
6.      Decreasing the amount of stress in ones life
7.      Drinking alcohol in moderation or not at all
8.      Surrounding oneself with healthy relationships
9.      Having knowledge about the environment and avoiding
environmental risk factors
10.    Taking personal safety measures



Essay Example 3: Organic Farming


Through out the history
of mankind, we have cultivated our own food. We have created a
society where everything is almost given to us; there are people who
work hard day after day trying to feed themselves and the rest of
the world. Some people choose to grow the crops in a sustainable way
to have a healthy lifestyle. This is a main reason
they grow their own food this way. Some farmers and companies
practice what I call super cropping. This is a vegetable growing
operation, which

In the process of growing organically There are many farming
methods some of which include Weeding, natural Pest Remedies, and
naturally occurring Fertilizers. These are all key topics to living
and growing a healthy lifestyle. One of the first
things you should do is clear your land/plot of any weeds. There are
many different ways of doing that. You can use sheet mulch which is
either newspaper or black plastic. After removing the weeds, the
ground is ready for plants through the material on the ground you
cut a hole for the plants to grow through. What this does is keeps
the weeds from growing up due to no sunlight. Another method of weed
control is flame weeding which is highly suggested for large amounts
of land. burns all the new weed seedlings. This is an advantage for
other plants because it heats the soil where the soil is cold it is
a plus. Some other techniques include cutting down (weeds) before
they flower which in the long run will save you a lot more time,
some farmers tend to do this because weeds go to seed after the
flowering stage. If a gust of wind comes than all those horrible
weeds would be transplanted in your garden. Last but not least the
good old fashioned hand weeding which I think is my favorite because
I feel it connects me more to nature.

After you have your land weed free, and clear of any invasive
plants, you might start to notice something is nipping at your
vegetables. This would be an insect infestation this is not healthy
for your young ones because they are subject to diseases Therefore
there are organic pest remedies that are still to this day practiced
throughout the World. There are many good or (beneficial) insects
for your garden the problem is trying to determine which ones they
are. That being said most people deicide to use chemical sprays, and
that is not good unless you want to eat chemicals. One thing you
should do is clear all weeds around plants so theres no place for
the insects to hide, Then you should also take into consideration
that planting some crops such as potatoes, carrots, cabbage and
broccoli seem to attract more insects than others. Another solution
is planting some flowers such as daisies, cosmos, dill, clover, and
coneflower. These are good flowers for attracting beneficial
insects. This is an insect that preys on undesirable pest. The key
is to make sure something is in flower all season. Avoid growing the
same types of vegetables in the same spot year after year. This is
called crop rotation. A four year rotation is best and of course
maintaining your garden is very important. Simply picking up dead
plants and fruit will decrease the chance of a sad infestation.

A really big key point to growing organically is using no chemicals
and instead using all natural resources. Soil fertility is also a
very important part for healthy plants. Here are four things that
should be added as raw materials to the soil. Organic matter such as
compost or manure. This should help raise the nitrogen and should be
applied up to 20 tons per acre, Second is Rock Phosphate which is a
fine powder and should be applied every four years, third is Green
sand marl. This is sand with some potassium but mostly
micronutrients to feed the soil. The forth is limestone which is a
ground rock containing calcium and magnesium. All these are very
important especially the micronutrients because they feed the soil.
Why feed the soil instead of the plant you ask? Because the plants
need a balanced availability of nutrients.

Fertilizing your plants will help them grow healthy. It is
better to use naturally occurring fertilizers such as manure,
slurry, worm castings, peat moss, seaweed, and guano. Some naturally
occurring minerals are rock phosphate, sulfate, potash, and
limestone. Some manufactured fertilizers include blood meal, and
bone meal.

The history of organics dates as far back as World War two, A
Chemical substances know as Ammonium Nitrate And DDT were sprayed
around the position of the troops to control insects around them. In
1944 a campaign by the name of Green Revolution was formed in Mexico
and had private funding by the United States to encourage hybrid
growing, with chemical controls. Around the 1950s scientists all
over the country studied for a sustainable agriculture system, But
research still came to chemical approaches, until a guy by the name
of Jerome Irving Rodale made a dramatic change in the promotion of
organic farming. He wrote many healthy living books and
magazines articles. He quickly popularized the term Organic to
mean grown without pesticides. Around the time of 1970 most
Americans eyes started to open. Global movements concerned with the
pollution, and the environment increased their focus on organic
farming. At this time the difference of health benefits between
organic and conventional food became clearer.

So next time you go to the store you might want to think about what
you are really eating, I think the best way to ensure that your body
is getting the right nutrients is to grow your own produce. With
just a little time and effort you can have a wonderful organically
grown garden.



Essay Example 4: Guide to Healthy Eating


A Quick Guide to Healthy
Eating

Good nutrition plays a key role in health and wellness and mixed
with frequent exercise can lead to a healthier and longer life.
Unfortunately many people ignore the need for good nutrition, as
evident by the growing number of overweight and obese individuals.
There are a number of guidelines that have been set out by Nutrition
Australia for older teenagers and adults. Below are some guidelines
and information which can aid adults in living a longer, healthier
life.

Eat Plenty of These:
61 Fresh vegetables, fruit, and legumes
61 Cereals (preferably wholegrain and including breads, rice, pasts,
and muesli)

Include:
61 Lean meat, fish, and poultry
61 Milks, yoghurts, and cheeses (preferably reduced fat varieties
where possible)

Drink Plenty of:
61 Water

Limit:
61 Saturated fat and moderate total fat intake
61 Alcohol intake

Consume:
61 Foods low in salt
61 Foods that have moderate amounts of sugar and foods containing
sugar

Other ways in which to live a healthy lifestyle:
61 Consuming a varied diet C that is aim for different types of food
across the whole range of food
   types, such as fruit, vegetable, meats
61 To have a healthy lifestyle good eating patterns should be
combined with regular moderate
   exercise

The following are some physical activity guidelines that combined
with good nutrition will improve lifestyle:

61 Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience
61 Be active everyday in as many ways as you can
61 Put at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on
most, preferably all, days
61 If you can, also enjoy some regular vigorous exercise for extra
health and fitness

With a combination of healthy eating and regular exercise there are
a number of positive benefits:

61 More energy , less lethargic
61 Better concentration and mental processes
61 Increased work and life performance
61 Happier lifestyle
61 Increased self-esteem and self-confidence


Public awareness of personal health and fitness has grown
tremendously over the last few decades. In generations past the idea
of eating right and being physically fit was a luxury reserved for a
privileged few. This concept has matured to embrace the idea that we
all need to regularly engage in pursuit of our own wellbeing. It
seems that every week there is a new diet or fitness craze that
emerges promising to provide the missing element to help you trim
down and shape up. With all the choices available, its no wonder
that the majority of individuals that try to improve their
condition, eventually drift back into old habits and fall short of
their goals, feeling discouraged and even more confused about how to
effectively begin living a healthy lifestyle.

Defining the elements that constitute a healthy lifestyle is often
as challenging as living the model. Training for the body and
conditioning for the mind serves to address the duality of our
complex nature. To neglect one in favor of the other, only serves to
make your approach one dimensional and reduces its effectiveness. 
Most fitness professionals agree that there are several key factors
that are necessary for a well rounded training routine. Each
component adds greater depth to your overall approach to wellness.
Here are several things to consider while developing your approach
to healthy living.
    
A comprehensive model of healthy living should address
physical and mental training, nutrition, and how to balance these
with quality rest and recovery.  Resistance training enhances your
capacity to perform activities requiring physical strength. This
coupled with cardio-conditioning increases your endurance, or the
ability to work longer periods of time without overtaxing. Combing
strength and endurance with systems of exercise that increase
flexibility, or the range of motion in a joint, aid in allowing for
a greater sense of confidence and coordination as you move. Choosing
an activity, that challenges your body and equally engages your
mind, will serve to increase your powers of concentration and helps
you to become calmer. Working with a Personal Trainer or other
qualified fitness professionals can help you to get started in a
smart and safe manner.

Maintaining a balanced and varied diet is essential for the
promotion of health. Eating fresh foods with a minimum of processing
is believed by many experts to provide a greater quality of
nutrition. Altering your diet to take advantage of whats in
season will give you a broader selection of foods to choose from as
well.
    
According to a prominent neuro-immunologist and one of the nations
leading authorities on stress reduction, the clinical definition of
aging is: The bodies declining ability for recovery.  Hall further
states that this decline is not necessarily linked to our
chronology, but is likely the result of stress due to the unceasing
demands that we place on ourselves. Sufficient rest when we feel
tired or during times that are exceedingly stressful is essential. 
Adequate recovery from work or injuries and extra rest when we feel
illness coming on is our best weapon to aid in the healing process.
    
The best gauge of health and fitness is how well you feel on a
daily basis. At the core of this level of wellness is a lifestyle
built around balance and moderation. Take the time to take care of
yourself. The results of your investment will prove to be well worth
the effort.



Essay Example 5: Healthy School Meals


Sometimes it seems hard
to believe it, but in fact it is true, that actually St. Peter’s,
from it’s small part of Nottingham, was the catalyst for the now
growing movement to improve the quality of school meals. All the
government initiatives and even Jamie Oliver’s (our favourite chef)
campaign was inspired by what we began at St. Peter’s. Yet, what was
that? Simply a desire to provide a better nutritional deal for the
children of East Bridgeford through the provision of non-processed,
locally sourced and organic food, freshly cooked each day by our
fantastic kitchen staff, originally led by the now famous Mrs. Orrey
and more recently by the dedicated and aptly named Mrs. Plumb. This
is our so named ‘Primary Choice’ school meals’ service.

This is a reputation, however, that we do not want to boast about
(although we are always willing to help others who are interested in
improving their own service), but rather continue to sustain and
develop on behalf of the children we serve. As we are aware, an
increasing amount of research is proving that eating the right
nutritionally balanced meals, and also drinking water throughout the
day, can improve children’s behaviour, personalities and ability to
learn. What we want to tell children and anyone else who wants to
listen is that it can be better and it is possible.

We do this by cooking from fresh on the premises and combining
ordinary foods, with locally sourced and organic produce, as much as
possible avoiding processed food. Whatever our menus we will always
have a baked potato option, fresh fruit and a help yourself salad
bar. Moreover, we use proper crockery and table cloths, recognising
that eating together with friends is about our social, as well as
nutritional, well-being and education. We also have plumbed in,
filtered water machines in each classroom both to provide and symbolise the importance of drinking well. Through all of this we
are also able to get pupils interested in learning more about
nutrition and the importance of healthy lifestyles through
our classroom teaching.

Within this we are particularly keen to encourage our Early Years
children to stay for lunch and in line with this offer them dinners
at a reduced rate. Furthermore, we are keen to have parents and
other friends/members of the community joining us and hardly a day
goes by when this doesn’t happen. To help parents and pupils make an
informed choice, we also send menus home each week.

Our message is a simple one, therefore: eat healthily and live well.
This is not about telling children what to eat, but about educating
them so that they can make informed choices in a balanced way, both
now and in the future. The value we attach to our school meals
service and the quality of the food, simply helps us engage pupils
more fully in this positive message. We also see healthy
eating as only a part of a broader health message, which also
encompasses the need for physical fitness (hence we offer a lot of
sporting opportunities) and the self-confidence to follow a
healthy
life-style and resist bad influences and harmful peer
pressure (i.e. resisting such temptations as drugs and cigarettes).

In essence we try to help to ensure children get a well balanced
meal at midday and a well balance healthy lifestyle for the
rest of their lives. Of course the decision is one that every
individual and family must make for themselves, but we help they
will make our service and message their ‘Primary Choice’.


Essay
Example 6: Obsession about being Thin


At present, a new dilemma
has come to our nation’s, and the world’s, attention: dangerously
thin, half-starved models who are setting the weight standard for
today’s society. People, especially young women, look at these
models and want to look just like them, no matter what the
consequences to their bodies and minds. This has caused an increase
in eating disorders and has emphasized an unhealthy lifestyle.
Fortunately, organizations like the  have begun to create
committees and form guidelines for models to help promote a
healthier life style. As long as models, modeling agencies, and
designers are committed to promoting healthy lifestyles, this
dangerous trend can and will cease to exist.

We are currently seeing a trend in today’s fashion world where
runway models are disappearing before our eyes. Models have gotten
to be so thin, that now, “the average runway model is estimated to
be 5 feet 9 inches tall and to weigh in at 100 lbs. C resulting in a
BMI of just 16” (Klonick). Why is a BMI, short for Body Mass Index,
of just 16 such a dreadful thing? Well consider this: “The standard
accepted by the World Health Organization is that an index of under
18.5 is underweight” . Don’t get me wrong, there are healthy models
out there, but the majority of models have become thin and
emaciated. As former model Lori Dyson puts it, “There are healthy
models out there with a naturally high metabolism, but the models
I’m seeing on the runway now can not possibly be healthy. Dull skin,
sunken eyes, bodies that look like they could break any secondthat
is not healthy” (Dyson) This life-threatening trend became dead
serious when several models, including 21-year-old Brazilian model
Ana Carolina Reston, died from self-starvation (“Fashion Bosses”).
However, models haven’t always been this skeletal. Dyson states that
it was very different when she modeled in high school. “The emphasis
was more on having a healthy, fit body. It was all about learning to
balance eating right and exercising”. And in today’s modeling world?
Now the emphasis is, to put it plainly, on looking like a stick. “In
the 90sthe sample size used by designers was a size 6 to 8, nowa
size 0 to 2”. As you can clearly see, there has been a drastic
change in models’ weight over the years and experts agree it is time
to put a stop to it before more people starve themselves to fit the
severe standards of the fashion industry.

The obsession over too-thin models has had a negative effect on
today’s society, particularly for women. There has been a definite
increase in eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia ever
since abnormally thin models plagued the runway. “A 2000 British
Medical Association studyfound a link between the images of the
abnormally thin models in fashion magazines and an increase in
[eating] disorders” . Do you look at pictures of me and want to
puke?” [asked Cindy Crawford when asked if models were the cause of
eating disorders] Evidently they’re not hearing a resounding “Yes!”
from the seven million American women who suffer from eating
disorders”. And it’s not only American women who are suffering from
eating disorders; teenagers are particularly susceptible to
establishing an eating disorder because they don’t always understand
and cannot comprehend the damage they are doing to their bodies.
Teenage girls strive to imitate their role models at whatever cost.
What they don’t realize is that the cost affects them both
physically and mentally and can turn into an obsessive behavior that
is destructive to their bodies and minds. Too many teenage girls
try to starve themselves into unhealthy thinness. The fashion
industry is hugely powerful in shaping attitudes of young women”
(“London”). By choosing overly-thin models, they are setting the
standards for young women today. Runway shows, top model
competitions, and even magazine covers all contribute to the hype of
“Thin is in”. Teenagers should be figuring out who they are, how
they feel about Iraq, about abortion. Instead, the question ‘Who am
I?’ has been replaced by ‘How do I look?’. It’s time for the fashion
industry to realize that they are deeply affecting people’s body
images today in a very negative manner and to make way for
healthier, larger models.

So who, or what, started the hazardous trend of emaciated models in
the first place? Models, designers, and fashion insiders all have
very different views on the subject. Some blame the models, others
the modeling agencies, and others blame the designers who want to
create a certain look to showcase their designs. Donna Karan, a
well-known fashion designer, “raised the heat” when she blamed
modeling agencies for sending models who show signs of an eating
disorder to castings . Modeling agencies got even more heat when
Shape Magazine reported that they give models only a couple of weeks
to “shape up, tone down, or ship out”. Models comply with modeling
agencies telling them to slim down or risk losing money. Others,
however, blame the designers themselves. Georgio Armani states that
“As so often in the fashion world, things have been taken to
extremes.” But he blames the models, saying, “there arewomen who
never accept that they are thin enough” Jillian Blume points out
that “he fails to mention that if his models don’t fit into his
microscopic clothes, they’re out of work. So who’s to blame for
starting the trend? While not everyone will agree, I personally
believe that it was a combination of models, modeling agencies, and
designers that kept the trend alive. Designers’ clothes got smaller
and smaller as they tried to create a “look”. Models slimmed way
down for either personal reasons or because they wanted to stand out
and get more work. Modeling agencies sent these tiny models to
castings so designers only had tiny models to choose from. Other
models saw that tiny models were getting more work, and more money,
so they decided to slim down too. In a vicious circle, the vicious
trend is kept alive. If models decided to stop starving themselves
to get work, if designers made their clothes for a larger, healthier
person, and if modeling agencies stopped sending food-deprived
models to castings, then maybe this vicious trend would cease to
exist and we’d have healthy models on the runway and healthier body
images.

For the people who have not been swept up into the skinny epidemic,
a solution to this problem has been too long in coming. Lynn Grefe,
chief executive of the National Eating Disorders Association,
agrees. “This is long overdue. I consider this a workplace issue.
You have this industry that has really not been looking out for the
health and welfare of those that are in it. Fortunately for us, that
is about to change. Fashion insiders are coming up with different
plans to stop the dangerous trend. Already, “Madrid Fashion Week
banned models with a Body Mass Index of less than 18” from walking
on the runway. Now, for a 5-foot 9-inches model to be able to step
foot on the runway, they would have to weigh at least 123 pounds.
And it hasn’t stopped there. Other fashion power houses are taking a
cue from Madrid and coming up with restrictions and guidelines for
models. “in December, Italy’s Chamber of Fashion  decreed that
models on the Milan runways will need a license signed by a doctor
guaranteeing they are healthy at least 16 years old”. The 
has gone even farther in their efforts to make models healthier by
working with designer Diane von Furstenberg to put together a
committee to work on a health program. The committee includes
nutritionist Joy Bauer, psychiatrist Susan Ice, trainer David
Kirsch, and Nian Fish, creative director at show production firm
KCD”. However, the  and Madrid Fashion Week are not the only
organizations that have been working to promote healthier body
image. Fashion show coordinators in fashion hot spots like New York
and London have not launched a ban on to skinny models, but they are
having discussions with designers supporting the use of healthy-looking
girls (“Fashion Bosses”). Designers in the Italian fashion industry
agreed to only hire models above the age of 16 and to require that
models must submit medical proof that they do not have an eating
disorder . As long as these organizations are devoted to promoting
healthy lifestyles and, as psychologist Ann Kearney-Cooke
puts it, “widening the spectrum of beauty,” they can change the
harsh standards of the fashion industry and end this dangerous
trend.

Since the first time extremely emaciated models hit the runway, our
nation and the whole fashion world has had nothing but a series of
unfortunate events plague us. First, models slimmed way down,
putting their health at risk, to get work and earn money. Then came
a rise in eating disorders due to the fact that people were starving
themselves to look like the wispy models. Models got thinner and
thinner, and were promoting an unhealthy body image. People finally
began to take the issue seriously when several models died due to
eating disorders. Luckily, it didn’t take another death to make the
fashion world do something. Organizations are being made and
regulations set, and with everyone’s cooperation, we can turn this
trend around. We owe it to ourselves and our bodies to maintain a
healthy lifestyle
and not let models be our role models for how
we should look. This trend should be obliterated for the betterment
of all our lives.

Essay Example 7: Healthy Eating &

Nutrition


Healthy eating and
exercise will help in the prevention or maintenance of sugar levels
thus lowering the chance of developing diabetes and/or other
illnesses. A well balanced diet and regular exercise are important
for a healthy lifestyle to avoid these health issues. There are
certain benefits and important reasons for eating healthy. Eating
healthy allows the body to operate more efficiently, so that the
numbers of visits to the doctors office related to digestion or the
lack there-of are kept to a minimum, and a better quality of life
can be enjoyed. This paper will discuss the benefits of healthy
eating, controlling diabetes and prevention of other diseases and
illnesses.

There are significant benefits of feeling better. For one, a healthy
lifestyle promotes feeling better through exercise, and taking
advantage of activities that are not regularly participated in,
because of the way the body feels. Feeling better will also boost
metabolism. This means the body does not feel tired and could
potentially encourage a daily exercise plan. Exercising will get the
cardiovascular, lungs and stigma pumping. This exercise plan could
aid in the prevention of unwanted medication due to fatigue, being
overweight and generally not feeling well. Just moving about and
being active can work certain parts of the body. When the body feels
good it releases adrenaline. Adrenaline helps with daily activities.
Walking or running on a daily basis will provide the body with some
kind of physical activity. Feeling better alone with healthy
eating is a key essential to maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Another reason eating healthy foods is essential is it
provides the body with nutrients needed to maintain energy levels
throughout the day. A person will feel better and have higher
sustained energy levels that could last until evening or when it is
time to retire for the day. Here are some suggestions that should be
used to start eating healthy. They recommend to develop a
routine meal plan for daily meals and snacks. First, learn to not
skip meals especially breakfast; a balanced breakfast is recommended
every morning. Providing the body with breakfast in the morning is
like starting the motor of a car with a full tank of gas. If there
is no gas in the tank, the car will not run. With a full tank of
gas, the car is able to run for days. By providing the body with
fuel in the morning, the body is started for the day. When planning
a routine meal plan for eating healthy, think about if the body
weight is normal. If the body weight is normal, three meals a day
and two snacks between meals can be enjoyed everyday. Snacks can be
enjoyed between meals if hunger is experienced. Some suggestions for
eating healthy without piling on calories are to eat raw
foods like salads combined with low fat dressings. Drink plenty of
water to dilute toxins the body stores, which could leave a sluggish
feeling. If drinking water is boring, natural fruit juices low in
sugars can be substituted.

Healthy eating can prevent certain types of diseases and high
cholesterol. When shopping for food at the grocery store, purchase
certain foods that are low in saturated fats, low fat or skim dairy
products. Try to avoid a large amount of red meat. Purchase meat
products that are high in protein and buy products that have some
fiber in them. Foods that are high in saturated fats and cholesterol
are known to cause blockage in the body arteries. When these
arteries are blocked, the blockage will cut off the supply of blood
to the heart. If the heart does not get the oxygen it needs, this
will result in a heart attack. Dairy products such as milk, ice
cream, butter and cooking oils are high in fats and should be given
careful consideration when being purchased. The reasoning for not
eating a large number of red meat products is because these meats
are high in cholesterol and the body produces its own cholesterol.
Cholesterol is found in our hormones and in bile acids for digestion
purposes. When cholesterol is deposited into the body from the food
we eat, the cholesterol goes into the arteries that could result in
a blockage of the arteries. The coronary arteries narrow with high
cholesterol foods. A person can develop angina, or result in a heart
attack.

Foods we can eat to maintain a healthy body have
carbohydrates low in total fat, non-dairy products, soy products,
skinless chicken, fish e.g. salmon, cod, trout, and nuts. There are
benefits to eating these types of foods. Eating these types will
provide the body with the nutrients the body needs to stay healthy.
Carbohydrates low in fat, reduce the amount of starch the body will
absorb. These starches found in carbohydrates turn into certain
sugars once it passes through the digestion track. Too much sugar in
the body can be filtered into the blood. If there is a family
history of diabetes, I would suggest being mindful of products
purchased high in carbohydrate and sugars. This is why it is
recommended to purchase products low in carbohydrates because as the
body ages it unable to breakdown these products as effectively as it
did when the body was younger.

As the body ages, the body loses certain hormones that are not
reproduced therefore compromising overall health. Sugars are
measured with a glycemic index (GI). The glycemic index measures how
fast carbohydrates are digested when it enters the bloodstream which
raises the blood-sugar levels in the body. When foods with a low
glycemic index enter the bloodstream the insulin trigger is slower
contributing to a steadier blood sugar level. When foods have a
higher glycemic index entering the blood stream quickly, it causes
the insulin to respond more quickly resulting in large blood sugar
swings. This is why it is so important to balance carbohydrates each
meal since the effect of one food offsets the other, and all foods
turn into sugars to fuel the body.

Non-dairy products are recommended in practicing good choices for
healthy
eating. There are a couple of good reasons for
purchasing non-dairy products. Non-dairy products are low fats.
Non-dairy products provide the body with the benefit of getting some
extra protein in the diet.
An additional good product to include when making good quality
choices for healthy eating is soy. There are many benefits for
including soy in a daily diet routine. Soy is high in protein. Soy
can be substituted for red meat. Soy comes in a variety of forms.
Soymilk is a non-dairy product. Soy products can be purchased in
hamburger, hot dog, sausage, bacon, buffalo wing and host of other
forms. It is possible to find soy products in a grocery store. There
are many different brand names to choose from. In some studies, soy
has been known to reduce hot flashes in women during menopause. Soy
products can be used with hormone replacement therapy.

Skinless chicken is another product that is beneficial for healthy
eating. Chicken also provides the body with protein. Removing the
skin from the chicken is important for a couple of reasons. One
reason for removing the skin is, so the body does not absorb all the
fat that is stored in the skin. The fat from the skin contains and
holds toxins that are not good for the body. These same fats produce
starches and sugars in that could aid in blockages in the arteries
over time. By simply removing the skin from the chicken that is one
step forward in practicing good eating habits.
Fish alone is good for the body. Fish has certain oils that aids in
the production of a healthy heart alone with providing the body with
good saturated fatty oils. If fish is not a favorite to eat, a
supplement of fish oil caplets or pills can be included in a daily
diet routine.

Nuts are also an enormous source of nutrition with any diet plan.
Nuts are an excellent source of protein, minerals and other
nutrients found beneficial to the heart. According to the FDA in
July, 2003, it is suggested that eating 1.5 ounces of some nuts as
part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the
risk of heart disease. Six of the healthiest nuts to choose from
are: walnuts that contain the antioxidant compound ellagic acid,
which is known to fight cancer and support the immune system;
almonds are rich in potassium, manganese, copper, the antioxidants
vitamin E and selenium, and calcium. Just a quarter cup of almonds
contains as much calcium as a quarter cup of milk. Cashews are lower
in fat that other nuts and 90 % of the fat found in cashews is oleic
acid, the heart-healthy fat found in olive oil. Eating three
quarters a cup of pecans can help lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and
help clear the arteries. Brazil nuts are rich in selenium which may
help with breast cancer. Macadamia nuts are also a good source of
protein, fiber, healthy monounsaturated fats, potassium and
magnesium. These nuts are also shown to lower bad cholesterol (LDL)
just as the pecans do.

As with all daily routine diets, a good multivitamin is recommended.
Even though this meal plan is a good choice for healthy eating, a
multivitamin can be used in conjunction to maximize the benefits of
healthy eating. There are a variety of multivitamins to choose from.
Choose the multivitamin that best fits the body and lifestyle.
Vitamins come in a host of categories. Vitamins can be purchased
depending on the age of a person and other factors. For younger
adults who are very active, a multivitamin choice may be a
multivitamin with a higher percentage of B6 and B12 for energy.


For older adults with a
calcium deficiency a multivitamin high in calcium would be a good
choice. Whatever the need, there is multivitamin suited for the body
and all lifestyles. To ensure that the multivitamin being purchased
is tailored for the body and lifestyle, check with a doctor or
pharmacist for help in choosing a good multivitamin.

Therefore, by following a basic guideline for healthy eating, the
benefits of feeling better will be greater, and there will be fewer
trips to the doctors office and a reduction in diseases and
illnesses. A better quality of life can be enjoyed with a healthy
diet
and exercise.





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Advocate a Healthy
Lifestyle

Students gain knowledge and skills in acquiring and practicing a
healthy lifestyle
using dietary guidelines that will reduce the
risks of chronic disease and unsafe habits. They gain competence to
differentiate methods of weight loss and learn reliable resources
regarding food and beverage selection. Students will understand the
cultural, family, community and economic implications of obesity,
healthy weight and lifestyle.

Introductory Benchmark: Advocate a Healthy Lifestyle

Introductory Benchmark A: Identify social and cultural factors that
influence healthy lifestyle choices.

Describe the impact of peer pressure on lifestyle.
Describe the impact of vending, fast/convenience foods on lifestyle.

Correlated English Language Arts Academic Content Benchmarks

Analyze the techniques used by speakers and media to influence an
audience, and evaluate the effect this has on the credibility of a
speaker or media message.

Introductory Benchmark B: Demonstrate use of problem solving to make
healthy food choices for a healthy body.

Descriptor:

Establish criteria for making daily food choices to meet valued
outcomes (e.g., health, economics and aesthetics).
Explain how MyPyramid.gov guides healthy food choices.
Predict the consequences of using daily recommended dietary habits.

Explain how group/team skills accommodate and meet individual
healthy body needs in a family/household with diverse preferences.

Correlated English Language Arts Academic Content Benchmarks

Apply reading comprehension strategies to understand
grade-appropriate text.
Demonstrate comprehension of print and electronic text by responding
to questions (e.g., literal, inferential, evaluative and
synthesizing).
Compile, organize and evaluate information, take notes and summarize
findings.
Analyze the techniques used by speakers and media to influence an
audience, and evaluate the effect this has on the credibility of a
speaker or media message.

Correlated Mathematics Academic Content Benchmarks
Estimate, compute and solve problems involving real numbers,
including ratio, proportion and percent, and explain solutions.

Introductory Benchmark C: Describe food intake patterns related to
healthy lifestyle outcomes.

Descriptor:

1. Recognize choices that promote healthy food consumption.

2. Identify food categories or combinations that meet healthy
dietary guidelines and contribute to healthy eating patterns.

3. Demonstrate knowledge of basic food preparation.

Introductory Benchmark D: Examine restaurants and their menus
related to a healthy lifestyle.

Descriptor:

Research www.MyPyramid.gov to gain knowledge of restaurant menu
items for nutritional value.
Differentiate among restaurant menu items that contribute to daily
requirements including portion control.
Identify nutritious foods to eat when away from home.

Descriptor:

1. Determine reliable sources of nutrition information.
2. Identify the components of the USDA nutrition facts label.
3. Research special claims on food labels related to the nutritive
value of packaged food.
4. Demonstrate knowledge of nutrient functions in the body.

Correlated English Language Arts Academic Content Benchmarks

Understand factors associated with body weight.

Descriptor:
1. Explain the role of exercise in managing weight.
2. Identify factors that influence body weight.
3. Explain criteria for determining healthy body weight.

1. Identify the health benefits of physical activity and sleep.

2. Describe physical activities suitable for adolescents.

3. Describe the sleep patterns suitable for adolescents.

Ensure Food Safety

Students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to become
informed and safe consumers and handlers of food. They evaluate
information related to advances in food technology, nutrition
and safety. Students will master the skills required to safely
prepare and store food, reducing the risk of food borne illness.
Students will evaluate the impact of consumer choice on the
environment and the global community.

Introductory Benchmark: Ensure Food Safety –

Recognize importance of proper food and beverage handling techniques
related to food-borne pathogens.

Descriptor:

1. Practice personal hygiene behaviors to prevent food-borne
pathogens by:

Washing hands;
Covering cough or sneeze and washing hands;
Tying hair back and avoiding touch;
Wearing clean clothes with no loose sleeves;
Using gloves if hands have open sores or cuts;
Avoiding tastes with utensils used to prepare food.
2. Describe how common mistakes in food handling promote food-borne
pathogens (e.g., Salmonella, botulism, and E. coli).

3. Use safe kitchen behaviors to prevent food-borne pathogens
including:

Cook foods to recommended temperatures;
Refrigerate food promptly;
Keeping hot foods hot;
Avoid eating raw foods (e.g., raw cookie dough; raw eggs; partially
cooked meat, eggs,
fish);

Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator overnight or in microwave;
Wash fresh produce under running water just before using or eating;

4. Explain kitchen sanitation procedures, to prevent cross
contamination and food-borne pathogens by:

Using clean utensils and containers;
Washing tops of cans;
Washing counters and cutting boards with chlorine bleach solution;

Keeping pets and insects out of the kitchen;
Cleaning as you go;
Disposing garbage properly;
Washing dishcloths and sponges daily.

Introductory Benchmark B: Identify thoughtful, ethical, and workable
individual actions that ensure adequate, secure food supplies for
individuals and families.

Descriptor:

1. Select foods from a limited set of food choices to:

Give an example of nutritionally dense foods (e.g., raw
vegetables, low-fat dairy, whole grains, lean proteins)
Explore individual daily dietary requirements (e.g., related to age,
caloric intake, exercise, special food needs, cultural differences).

2. Determine whether school wellness program provides students with
foods that meet dietary requirements.
3. Determine if school wellness program suits the diverse school
population.
4. Identify common food allergies and sensitivities (e.g., seafood,
wheat, nuts, lactose, eggs).
5. Monitor labels to help individuals avoid allergenic foods (e.g.,
seafood, wheat, nuts, lactose, eggs).

Descriptor:

1. Give examples of renewable and non-renewable resources related to
food and food packaging.
2. Understand what food preparation practices help sustain the
environment including:
Separate trash into renewable and non-renewable categories before
discarding;
Keep range top burners and reflectors clean;
Run dishwasher only when full;
Avoid preheating oven except for baking;
Cover pan when boiling water;
Match pan size to heating element;
Watch the timer rather than open the oven door.
3. Recognize why food preparation practices can sustain the
environment.

Demonstrate safe food-handling practices related to food-borne
pathogens.

Descriptor:

1. Interpret high-risk food situations related to immune-compromised
individuals (e.g., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]
patients, infants, pregnant women, diabetics).

2. Model personal hygiene behaviors to prevent food-borne pathogens
by:

Washing hands;
Covering cough or sneeze and washing hands;
Using gloves if open sore or cuts;
Avoiding tastes with utensils used to prepare food.
3. Model safe kitchen behaviors to avoid food-borne pathogens
including:

Cook foods to recommended temperatures;
Wash fresh produce;
Refrigerate food promptly;
Keep hot foods hot;
Use thermometer when cooking;
Avoid eating raw food (e.g., raw cookie dough; raw eggs; partially
cooked meat, eggs, fish);
Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator overnight or in microwave;
Clean refrigerator (e.g., prevent Listeria);
Wash fresh produce before using or eating.
4. Demonstrate kitchen sanitation when handling food, to prevent
cross contamination and food-borne pathogens by:

Using clean utensils and containers;
Washing tops of cans;
Washing counters and cutting boards with chlorine bleach solution;

Keeping pets and insects out of the kitchen;
Disposing garbage properly;
Washing dishcloths and sponges daily.
Examine the effects that food-borne pathogens have on the body.

Correlated Science Academic Content Benchmark

Explain how processes at the cellular level affect the functions and
characteristics of an organism. (Life Sciences A, 11-12)

Intermediate Benchmark B: Use critical thinking and reasoning to
engage available resources and ensure an adequate, secure food
supply.

Descriptor:

1. Plan budgeted meals that consider secure food supply concerns
including:

Use nutritionally dense foods (e.g., raw vegetables, low-fat
dairy, whole grains, lean proteins);
Meet individual daily dietary requirements (e.g., related to age,
caloric intake, exercise, special food needs, cultural differences).

Use cost comparison strategies (e.g., generic vs. brand, coupons);

Explore use of local food pantries and food or soup kitchens (e.g.,
government agencies, school meal programs, available storage
environments [no refrigeration, cooking facilities]).
2. Identify regulating agencies at the local, state, and federal
levels responsible for insuring a secure food supply.

3. Examine how individuals and government agencies regulate food
safety to protect citizens considering:

Food traceability, food supply security, and imported and exported
food safety;
Federal, community, and household methods to protect and cope with
bio-terrorism;
Government regulatory role for efficacy (e.g., of foods, vitamins,
herbs, other nutritional supplements);
Government regulatory role for food product safety related to
quality and wholesomeness; food inspections; and food cultivation,
processing, packaging and labeling.
4. Identify action plan that considers differing points of view
related to:

Safe and sustainable food public policy issues;
Safe imported foods;
Genetically modified food, herbs and supplements;
School food programs;
Local wellness policies;
Organic foods;
Antibiotic use in food stock animals.
5. Identify reliable resources of food safety information to inform
families making decisions related to providing safe, secure food
supplies.

6. Use reliable resource criteria related to food safety information
including:

Credentialed authors;
Up-to-date, unbiased information without conflict of interest;
Validated information from more than one source;
Information based on reliable research procedures.
7. Accommodate food allergies, intolerances, and sensitivities by
recommending dietary alternatives (e.g., to seafood, wheat, nuts,
beans, lactose, eggs).

8. Examine food safety technologies (e.g., irradiation processes,
organic production, additives, preservatives).

Correlated English Language Arts Academic Content Benchmarks

Demonstrate comprehension of print and electronic text by responding
to questions (e.g., literal, inferential, evaluative and
synthesizing). (Reading Process B, 8-10; Reading Process B, 11-12)

Compile, organize and evaluate information, take notes and summarize
findings. (Research B, 11-12)
Evaluate the usefulness and credibility of data and sources and
synthesize information from multiple sources. (Research C, 11-12)

Correlated Mathematics Academic Content Benchmarks

Estimate, compute and solve problems involving real numbers,
including ratio, proportion and percent, and explain solutions.
(Number, Number Sense and Operations G, 8-10)
Apply mathematical knowledge and skills routinely in other content
areas and practical situations. (Mathematical Processes B, 8-10)
Locate and interpret mathematical information accurately, and
communicate ideas, processes and solutions in a complete and easily
understood manner. (Mathematical Processes H, 8-10)
Assess the adequacy and reliability of information available to
solve a problem. (Mathematical Processes C, 11-12)

Correlated Social Studies Academic Content Benchmarks

Evaluate, take and defend positions about issues concerning the
alignment of the characteristics of American democracy with
realities in the United States today. (Government A, 11-12)
Critique data and information to determine the adequacy of support
for conclusions. (Social Studies Skills and Methods B, 11-12)

Intermediate Benchmark C: Apply kitchen practices that sustain the
environment.

Descriptor:

1. Give multiple examples of renewable and non-renewable resource
practices related to food and food packaging waste.
2. When purchasing, storing and preparing foods, use renewable and
non-renewable resource practices to sustain the environment by such
practices as:

Avoid letting water run;
Separate trash recyclables and garbage;
Compost;
Choose recyclables when possible;
Buy in bulk;
Avoid double wrapping;
Keep range top burners and reflectors clean;
Run dishwasher only when full;
Avoid preheating oven except for baking;
Cool leftovers before refrigerating;
Cover pan when boiling water;
Match pan size to heating element;
Eliminate disposable products like Styrofoam™ and plastic;
Use timer rather than open the oven door.
3. Explain the impact of resource-conserving practices for
sustaining the environment.

============


Kids and Healthy
Lifestyle
s

Run, Jump, And . . . Eat Vegetables!

With childhood obesity affecting one in five children, camps play a
vital role in turning back this national trend. Camps are important
partners for parents and children who want to make positive changes
that keep kids active and eating right all year long.

The Culprits

Health professionals agree that numerous environmental and social
factors are at play when it comes to the eating and exercise
behaviors of young people. The era of walking uphill two miles to
school every day is long-gone for most kids, and with the
availability of buses and carpools, most children no longer walk to
school. Playing outside is also decreasing with children spending
much more time indoors than children ten or twenty years ago.

Its no surprise to concerned parents that many children spend too
much time with inactive technology, devoting as much as three to
five hours a day to TV or computer-related entertainment. Almost
everyone is familiar with the Food Guide Pyramid, but not many
people are as familiar with the Physical Activity Pyramid. According
to the Council for Physical Education for Children, sixty minutes is
the minimum amount of physical activity recommended for children.
Ideally, children should engage in flexibility games and exercises
as well as muscular fitness activities at least three times a week,
have active aerobics, active sports and recreation activities be a
part of each days activities, and gather many of the sixty minutes
of moderate and vigorous activities from outside play, games,
walking, and other physical exercise. Camps offer an optimal
environment to encourage varying levels of physical challenges,
teach lifelong active recreational pursuits, and establish
opportunities to learn active lifestyle behaviors.

A Healthy Attitude at Camp

Camps and their staffs make sure that camp programs offer
opportunities for healthy and active living. If children begin to
change some of their food and activity habits at camp, they might be
able to transfer some of these behaviors when they return home.

How do camps help? For starters, camps continue doing what they do
best, which is focusing on the positive development of children.
Camp is, after all, for kids.

61 Camps can help children learn to like foods that are good for them
by presenting good choices in a fun, safe environment.

61 Camps can provide older children and young adults as mentors for
the children, to support positive, healthy
behavior.

61 Camps can teach children that physical exercise is fun and can be
an activity of choice over television and video games.

61 Camp environments can become the safest activity-oriented learning
center outside the school system by working in
tandem with education and nutrition.

Food and Nutrition at Camp

Many camps look for innovative, fun, tasty ways to provide healthy
choices and decision-making skills to their campers.

The following list includes some tried-and-true techniques found
at camps:

61 Teach children to alter food preferences by giving
them good choices

61 Offer taste tests, expose children to new foods

61 Encourage eating breakfast

61 Offer new exercise/activity programs

61 Reduce fast food and junk food for snacks and side
dishes (chips, cookies, candy, etc.), provide healthy
options at the snack bar or camp store

61 Educate children about healthy eating and knowing
when to stop eating

Physical Activity at Camp

Most camp programs are synonymous with activity from walking to
field games, and the best camps challenge themselves every year by
offering fresh activities to draw in new campers and excite
returning campers.

What works

61 Physical fitness fun with contests and games

61 Active role models at camp

61 Physical activity that doesnt require lots of equipment

61 Activity teams or walking buddies programs

61 Positive feedback on the process of doing your best, emphasizing
participation rather than winning or being the best

61 A wide variety of new and traditional activities, sports, and
games

61 Focus on fun and gaining a healthier lifestyle

Social Support

If young people see peers and adults they admire, like their
counselors and other campers, engaged in enjoyable active pursuits,
they will likely want to model a similar behavior. If your childs
favorite counselor routinely engages in games, swimming, hiking, and
other enjoyable activities, its easy to imagine that your child
will follow suit. In the company of new and old friends, these new
adventures, as well as the shared, nutritious meals are simply more
rewarding.

Camps can play a vital role in contributing to lifelong patterns of
exercise and excellent nutrition. Camp is a great place to
offer good food, great activities, a positive environment, safe and
secure location, and most of all, fun.


==========


Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Obesity C a growing problem

Obesity is having excessive body-fat to the point where health is
endangered. The condition is spreading rapidly among the population
both in England and worldwide C a trend that amounts to a
public-health timebomb. Obesity results from an imbalance between
diet and physical activity, and it can be avoided by adopting a
healthy lifestyle
. In Kent and Medway, obesity is more prevalent
than in the South East as a whole; but it is only marginally more
prevalent in Kent and Medway than it is across England as a whole.

Chapter 2: Public-health goals

Central government has recognised the importance of obesity as a
public-health issue and has set targets relating to obesity, diet
and exercise. These national targets are reflected in the Kent
Agreement, which also contains ambitious local targets.

Chapter 3: Partnership working to tackle obesity in Kent

There is significant scope for local government, together with
partners (including the National Health Service), to promote and
encourage healthy lifestyles in a whole range of ways.
Planning of the built environment must contribute to facilitating
exercise and the availability of healthier food choices. The role of
local authorities in respect of business and consumer-protection
must include aiding healthier food choices. Services for children
and families must help foster healthy lifestyles. Provision
of Adult Services must take account of clients need for healthy
lifestyle
s. The education sector must inform and assist students
in making healthy lifestyle choices. Leisure and recreation
facilities are vital ways of facilitating physical activity.
Planning of transport, highways and streets must take account of the
need to facilitate healthier modes of transport. Everyday exercise,
as part of peoples ordinary working and domestic routines, must be
encouraged. Referral by primary-care practitioners to exercise and
weight-loss programmes must be facilitated. In all these areas,
there is already much good work going on in Kent that can be shared
and emulated.

Chapter 4: Strategic leadership

Tackling obesity in Kent requires strong strategic leadership.
Despite commendable work in the formulation by Primary Care Trusts
of local obesity strategies, and the formation of an Obesity
Sub-Committee of the Kent Public Health Network, the National Health
Service has not given a county-wide strategic lead. Kent County
Councils recently-formed Department of Public Health, working in
partnership with the National Health Service, should be seeking to
give such strategic leadership. The government envisages an
important public-health leadership role for Local Strategic
Partnerships, but their structure and their funding will need to
change if they are to play such a part.

Chapter 5: Healthier workplaces in Kent

Employers have a responsibility to facilitate and promote healthier
lifestyles among their staff. There is a sound business case for
doing so, since a healthy workforce tends to be more productive. The
public sector, including the National Health Service and local
government, has a duty to set an example. There are examples of good
practice within Kent County Council and these deserve to be copied
both within the County Council and further afield.

Chapter 6: Obstacles to physical activity

Among the general public, significant perceived obstacles to
physical activity include lack of time, cost, difficulty of
accessing facilities, childcare arrangements and poor health or
disability. There are specific issues regarding obstacles to
physical activity on the part of black and minority ethnic groups,
people with mental-health issues and people with disabilities. All
of these can be, and in some cases are already being, addressed by
culturally sensitive and otherwise appropriate approaches to
delivering services and undertaking initiatives.

Chapter 7: Funding sources

Financial allocations to Primary Care Trusts for public-health
purposes, under the Choosing Health White Paper, are not
ring-fenced. Consequently, in the current climate of shortfalls and
financial instability within the NHS, these sums are being used to
bridge gaps in Primary Care Trusts’ finances. Funding is available
from a range of sources, including the European Union and the Big
Lottery Fund, for community projects relating to healthy
lifestyle
s.

Chapter 8: Measuring the effectiveness of public-health
interventions

In the context of concerns about the effectiveness, and
cost-effectiveness, of public-health interventions, the Department
of Health is seeking to develop a model of health-promotion based on
the concept of Social Marketing. The National Institute for Health
and Clinical Excellence has recommended the use of brief
interventions with individuals in primary care to encourage physical
activity.



===============================


Introduction
Inspectors should assess how well pupils develop a basic knowledge
and understanding of health issues and apply this knowledge in their
own lives. The evidence collected to help inspectors reach this
judgement may also help inspectors in judging other outcomes,
aspects of provision and leadership and management. For example, if
a particular group of pupils does not understand health issues or
shows great reluctance in applying their knowledge positively,
inspectors will also need to consider the impact of this on care,
guidance and support and on the schools promotion of equality of
opportunity. Inspectors are not expected to judge whether pupils are
healthy.
General guidance
Most schools promote healthy living, partly, through their personal,
social, health and economic (PSHE) education programmes but also
through curriculum areas including physical education, science and
design technology. Information from these, and where relevant, other
areas, about the impact of the provision on pupils understanding of
health issues and the impact on their lifestyles may provide useful
evidence for inspectors. For example, observations of physical
education lessons will provide an insight into the participation
rates and quality of physical activity undertaken by pupils;
scrutiny of science books may provide evidence on what the pupils
know and understand about the impact of smoking on health; scrutiny
of work in design and technology1 may provide evidence of pupils
understanding of healthy eating options.
Where inspectors judge that pupils outcomes in respect to
healthy lifestyle
s are in response to the schools provision,
this will be reflected in their judgements about the effectiveness
of that provision. For example, where there are too few pupils or
specific groups of pupils participating in physical activity or
where pupils do not understand the health risks posed by substance
abuse, this evidence will help inspectors reach their judgement not
only on the extent to which pupils adopt healthy lifestyles
but also on the quality of the curriculum and of care guidance and
support.
Important sources of evidence for the judgement about the extent to
which pupils adopt healthy lifestyles, are Ofsteds pupils
and parents surveys, carried out when the school has been notified
of the inspection. These provide a general view of whether or not
pupils are encouraged to adopt healthy active lifestyles. Inspectors
can also investigate whether the school itself consults pupils,
parents, staff and governors about health issues, particularly in
relation to developing and applying policies and programmes for sex
and relationships education (SRE) and drug, alcohol and tobacco
education (DATE). Evidence about such consultation, which may be
indicated in the self-evaluation form (SEF) and followed up through
discussions with staff and pupils, may also contribute to judgements
about the extent to which pupils contribute to the school community
and how well the school engages with parents.
Potential areas for investigation
The uptake of school meals: Inspectors should note the uptake of
school meals, which are based on national nutrition
standards2, and discuss this in the context of the school. The
government targets and national figures for the uptake of school
meals are available in separate guidance.
Questions that might be asked are whether pupils and parents follow
any guidance given about packed lunches and about what food and
drink should be brought into school. Inspectors should not examine
the contents of packed lunches but may wish to discuss this
informally with pupils who bring them to school.
Pupils choice of food: An important aspect of pupils adoption of a
healthy lifestyle is their choice of food. In considering
school meals uptake and other healthy eating choices inspectors
should be mindful of the choices that parents make for their
childrens food, both in school and at other times. Inspectors can
consider whether pupils are aware of the potential positive and
negative consequences of different foods and eating patterns.
Inspectors will want to investigate whether pupils make healthy
choices from the range of food and drink, including school lunches,
provided in the school. This includes food and drink sold or
provided as snacks and those choices provided by vending machines in
the school.
Physical activity: Inspectors will want to find out what proportion
of pupils undertakes high quality physical education each week,
given the governments PSA target for two hours physical education
and school sport for all 5-16 year olds. The national figures are
provided in separate guidance. Inspectors will also find it helpful
to ask what proportion of the pupils takes part in five hours of
physical education and school sport each week (as set out in the
physical education and school sports strategy for young people).
The following are examples of further questions which inspectors may
find helpful with regard to pupils adoption of physically
healthy lifestyle
s.
Do pupils understand that physical activity, together with a healthy
diet, can help them feel healthier and may help them cope with
stress?
What are the take-up rates, for all groups of pupils, for activities
that promote physical activity?
Where appropriate, what proportion of pupils walk or ride safely to
school?
Are pupils:
able to work and play in an appropriate environment with regard to,
for example, comfortable levels of light and temperature in
classrooms
required to carry heavy bags unnecessarily
able to use furniture, equipment including physical education
apparatus which are appropriate to their age and stage of physical
development to enable them to avoid physical discomfort such as back
pain?

Sex and relationships related issues: Inspectors will want to
investigate pupils understanding and knowledge of issues, relevant
to their age, pertaining to sex and relationships. Secondary school
pupils should be aware of the dangers of sexually transmitted
infection (STI) and auto-immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Inspectors should also consider pupils knowledge and understanding
in these areas in the context of the approach to SRE taken by the
school. This is because governing bodies have the right to determine
their schools approach to SRE, to ensure that this can be delivered
in line with the context, values and ethos of the school.
Pupils mental and emotional health: Inspectors are not required to
determine the state of the pupils mental and emotional health.
However inspectors can, through discussion with pupils, ascertain
their understanding of the factors which may damage these aspects of
their health and those which can bring about improvements. For
example, inspectors may investigate whether pupils, relevant to
their age and cognitive ability, are able to recognise the signs of
stress and mental ill health and act on them either through
preventative measures or accessing confidential advice and support.
Inspectors should be mindful of the links between evidence which may
be relevant to pupils safety and behaviour, such as that on
bullying, which may also have an impact on pupils mental and
emotional health.
Inspectors might also consider how well pupils respond to the
schools use of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL)
materials to develop pupils social and emotional understanding and
skills. Many schools have records and analysis of the impact of SEAL
on both groups of pupils and individuals.
Pupils with medical needs: Many schools accommodate pupils with
significant medical needs such as diabetes. Inspectors will need to
consider whether these pupils, in the context of their particular
needs, understand the factors that impact on their health and can
apply them to their lifestyle. This may contribute to the evidence
in a case study of one or more potentially vulnerable pupils and
will also provide some insight into the schools care, guidance and
support arrangements.
Awards: Schools are often keen to present evidence of the Healthy
Schools Award and/or Activemark. Inspectors can consider this
evidence for indications of positive outcomes and pupil
participation.



====================


Introduction
Obesity is widely recognized as one of the most pressing health
threats to children and families across the country. Today,
one-third of American children and adolescents are either obese or
at risk of becoming obese.1 There are serious health implications
associated with obesity for children, including increased risk for
developing heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, orthopedic
problems, and asthma.2

When ethnicity and income are considered, the picture is even more
troubling. African-American and Hispanic families have the greatest
risk for overweight and obesity, and youngsters from lower-income
families have a higher risk for obesity than those from
higher-income families. More than 40 percent of African-American
teenagers are overweight, and nearly 25 percent are obese.3 Hispanic
children have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes (52 percent for
boys, 45 percent for girls), followed closely by African-American
children (49 percent for boys, 40 percent for girls). 4

As the debate over how to address the rising childhood obesity
epidemic continues, it is especially important to explore how
attitudes, environmental factors, and policies influence childrens
health in these most vulnerable populations. For this reason, The
HSC Foundation, with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, conducted a community-based
research initiative with Latino and African-American parents and
adolescents living in households in the Washington metropolitan area
with annual incomes under $30,000.

Researchers interviewed the participants to learn more about their
attitudes regarding health and obesity, current lifestyle behaviors,
and sources of information about health-related topics. The study
also assessed participants perceived social and cultural barriers
to changing current behavior patterns and explored potential
approaches for overcoming those barriers.

Through this study, researchers hoped to identify messages and
methods that would most effectively motivate these families to adopt
and maintain healthier lifestyles. By gaining a clear understanding
of how to effectively communicate with lower-income Latino and
African-American families about childhood obesity and its associated
health risks, results of this study can help to inform messaging,
programs, and policies created to address the epidemic.

Defining a Healthy Lifestyle
Understanding issues that affect lower-income African-American and
Latino families on a daily basis provides critical insight about
their priorities, concerns, and lifestyle behaviors. It is important
for public health officials and policy-makers to consider these
issues when developing messages, strategies, and interventions aimed
at promoting healthier lifestyles among these populations. In effort
to assess participants priorities, researchers asked them to
identify and rank their most pressing issues, to describe how their
communities shape their lives, and to define what a healthy
lifestyle
means to them.

Most parents listed unemployment, limited finances, safety,
education, immigration, language barriers, and spirituality as their
top concerns. Many parents admitted that they might not have
identified nutrition and physical activity as part of a
healthy lifestyle
if researchers had not prompted them to
discuss it.

Parents commonly described healthy children as well-adjusted
socially and emotionally. According to one parent, A healthy child
loves to play, loves to laugh, likes to interact with other kids and
has good manners. Latino parents typically associated a childs
weight with overall health. As long as children did not look too
thin or too fat, they were considered healthy. Some Latino parents
were more inclined to worry about thin children, and one commented,
We believe that if the child is fat or plump, he is well.

In contrast, teenagers perceptions of a healthy lifestyle
emphasized personal behaviors, such as making healthy food choices,
engaging in physical activity, and avoiding smoking, alcohol and
unprotected sex. Teens typically discussed activities and habits
that should be avoided in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

When prompted, most respondents acknowledged the importance of
healthy food choices and regular physical activity as elements of
maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Although parents and
teenagers generally recognize these as key components of a
healthy lifestyle
, they believe that time constraints,
environmental barriers, and limited resources often hinder their
efforts. For example, many parents know that offering nutritious
foods will help keep their children healthy, but theyre too tired
at the end of a busy day to prepare healthy meals, theyre
frustrated because they have limited access to supermarkets, and
they have little control over what their children eat at school.

Implications
Messages about preventing childhood obesity that are developed for
lower-income African-American and Latino families must be sensitive
to their central concerns and existing barriers discussed during
these interviews. Generic public health messages about overweight
and obesity do not appear to resonate with these communities.
Understanding that competing issues related to daily survival often
outweigh the importance of being overweight or obese will help
inform efforts to promote healthier lifestyles among these
communities.

Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors
Assessing respondents current health-related behaviors is one way
to evaluate their knowledge of behaviors that contribute to a
healthy lifestyle
. It also helps to determine specific
guidelines and activities parents and teens are willing to follow.
This practical information will help public health officials promote
effective messages, strategies, and programs that encourage
lower-income African-American and Latino families to engage in
healthier behaviors.

Researchers asked parents and teens to describe a typical day,
including the factors that most influence their diets and levels of
physical activity. In addition, participants were prompted to
describe personal and environmental obstacles that prevented them
from engaging in healthier behaviors. Lastly, respondents were asked
to rank a number of physical activities and eating habits they would
be willing to try in order to improve their familys health.

When asked to rate how healthy a typical day was, most parents and
teens declared fairly low scores. For African-American parents, lack
of physical activity was a contributing factor. Lack of physical
activity was also a factor for Latino parents, but they also
expressed concern for limited control over food selection,
especially for their children. Teens reported low scores and
acknowledged that they did not regularly consume a healthy diet.
Both African-American and Latino teens emphasized that most of their
meals were eaten outside of home and expressed dissatisfaction with
the quality and choices of foods offered at school.

Parents indicated that family income was the most important factor
that influences food purchases. Many parents reported the need to
stretch their dollars and carefully plan their shopping according
to prices and weekly grocery store promotions. Childrens food
preferences were another important influenceparents did not want to
waste money on foods that their children refuse to eat.

Parents and teens both reported that physical activity can help them
to feel relaxed, relieve stress, and improve self-esteem. Although
the respondents recognized these benefits, many indicated that time
constraints and environmental barriers prevented them from engaging
in regular physical activity. Safety was a strong concern among
African-American and Latino parents, while teens cited time
constraints as a major obstacle.

When presented with suggestions for how to increase physical
activity and improve eating habits, respondents had positive
reactions to the following ideas: participating in an exercise or
dance class, starting a walk-to-school program, taking a cooking
class, enrolling children in a sports program, and starting a group
to lobby local officials for more recreational facilities. While
parents and teens were generally supportive of these ideas, many
also indicated that time and financial constraints may prevent them
from taking advantage of these opportunities.

Implications
African-American and Latino respondents believe that physical
activity and healthy eating are important, but indicate that
significant environmental barriers make it difficult for them to
sustain healthy behaviors. Jurisdictions need to be held accountable
for providing clean, safe recreational spaces, and for addressing
the fears of crime that may restrict outdoor activity. Communities
also should work to leverage and expand existing resources available
through schools, recreational facilities, and local businesses. For
example, improving school nutrition policies, offering free
health education workshops and exercise classes for residents, or
supporting farmers markets would increase the availability of
affordable nutritious foods and create more opportunities for
physical activity. Messages and interventions aimed at reducing
childhood obesity should integrate culturally relevant suggestions
and must be sensitive to families with limited resources.

Perceptions of Overweight and Obesity
Understanding how African-American and Latino parents and teens
perceive the terms overweight and obesity can greatly impact how
information about the associated health risks is communicated to
families. As part of the interview process, parents and teens were
asked a range of questions to help researchers gain insights into
their attitudes, beliefs, and concerns regarding overweight and
obesity. Participants were asked to define overweight and obesity,
identify concerns they might have about the issue, and describe any
family discussions surrounding overweight or obesity.

Several themes emerged from the parent discussion groups. Parents
agreed that being overweight was associated with unhealthy eating
habits and physical inactivity and that being obese was associated
with the most extensive health problems and the greatest physical
limitations. Few participants were knowledgeable about the
scientific distinctions between overweight and obesity or the body
mass index screening tool. Researchers found that language barriers
made understanding the distinctions especially challenging for
Latino respondents.

Most participating parents blamed parents of overweight children for
overfeeding their children or not providing healthy foods at
homeyet many participants also admitted telling their own children
that being overweight was hereditary and beyond their control.
Nearly all of the parents expressed concern for chronic diseases,
low self-esteem, and poor body image among overweight children. They
also reported unsuccessful attempts at discussing issues of weight,
diet, and physical activity with their own children.
For teens, being overweight wa associated with unhealthy eating
behaviors and health problems. Some of their most common concerns
regarding overweight and obesity included poor health, physical
limitations, and appearance. Teens also shared specific beliefs
about how race influences obesity in their communities. For example,
one perception was that African-Americans have less healthy eating
habits than do Caucasians, because of limited financial resources
and fewer food choices. Male Latinos expressed the belief that
Caucasians are more concerned with being overweight than are Latinos
or African-Americans.

Implications
Most participants commonly define overweight and obesity on a
case-by-case basisdependent mostly on individual appearance rather
than scientifically accepted weight categories. This may indicate an
inability to accurately identify personal weight status or the
weight status of their children, and should be considered when
developing messages and resources for these communities.

Participants also voiced frustration over limited resources and
community support. Both African-American and Latino parents say
limited access to fresh nutritious foods and safe places to play in
their communities make it difficult for parents to encourage their
children to eat well and be active. Like their parents,
African-American and Latino teens do not believe they have support
from the community to help them sustain healthy lifestyle
changes. Informing political and community leaders of the issues
raised during this study may facilitate more effective approaches
for communicating with these most vulnerable families.

Sources of Information
In addition to discussing their beliefs regarding overweight and
obesity, respondents also were asked if they seek health
information, how they receive that information, and which sources
they trust. Parents reported that their sources of health
information include pamphlets from doctors offices and clinics,
magazines, radio, television and the Internet. Some parents also
proactively seek information from programs sponsored by Women,
Infants and Children (WIC) and from local nutrition hotlines.
Most parents believe that acquaintances who are making successful
changes, such as losing weight, are very credible sources.

With the exception of Latina females, most teens believed they were
knowledgeable about topics related to healthy lifestyles.
However, many teens wanted to know more, and were especially
interested in information that was specific to their personal health
and weight status. Among teens, the most credible information
sources included the school health program, doctors, and
nutrition
ists.

Parents and teens alike identified a preference for a more active
learning style, like show-and-tell or hands-on techniques, as
opposed to simply reading. Parents and teens also agreed that
messengers who are in good physical condition and had made lifestyle
changes that resulted in improving their own health would most
strongly motivate them to adopt healthier habits.

Implications
Delivering messages that will motivate Latino and African-American
families to adopt and maintain healthier lifestyles greatly depends
on effective communications vehicles and messengers. According to
respondents, it is important to provide engaging, hands-on learning
programs that involve multiple family members. These programs could
be sponsored in schools or community-based organizations, and they
need to be affordable and easily accessible for both parents and
children. Including strong messengers in the program, such as
community members and health professionals who have succeeded in
making healthy lifestyle changes is equally important.

Conclusion
Study findings demonstrate a clear need for a comprehensive approach
to address childhood obesity among lower-income African-American and
Latino families in the Washington metropolitan area. For many of
these families, issues relating to daily survival such as
employment, safety, limited finances, and education take priority
over the issues of overweight and obesity. Messages about preventing
childhood obesity must be sensitive to these concerns and aim to
raise the priority of increased physical activity and good
nutrition
. While respondents generally acknowledged the
importance of good nutrition and regular physical activity,
they expressed frustration and concern over time constraints and the
lack of resources and community support that would allow them to
sustain healthy behaviors.

By exploring perceptions and beliefs, assessing current healthy
behaviors, and determining trusted sources of health-related
information, researchers gained valuable insight about how to create
and deliver messages that will resonate with lower-income
African-American and Latino families. Collaboration among community
leaders and government, health care providers, schools, and families
is also critical to helping these most vulnerable populations adopt
and maintain healthier lifestyles.

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