normal - Wiktionary

Chinese[edit]

 

to be born; to give birth; life

to be born; to give birth; life; to grow; student; raw

 

to live; alive; living

to live; alive; living; work; workmanship

simp. and trad.
(生活)
alternative forms 松豪 calligraphy brush

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 2/2
Initial () (21) (21) (33)
Final () (109) (109) (64)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Closed
Division () II II I
Fanqie 所庚切 所敬切 戸括切
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/ /ɦuɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/ /ɦʷɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/ /ɦwat̚/
Li
Rong
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēng shèng huó
Baxter–Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēng shēng shēng huó
Middle
Chinese
‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng › ‹ hwat ›
Old
Chinese
/*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?) /*[ɡ]ʷˁat/
English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live to live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses “()” indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets “[]” indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets “<>” indicate infix;
* Hyphen “-” indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period “.” indicates syllable boundary.

Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 2/2
No. 11312 11322 7585
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/ /*ɡoːd/

Noun[edit]

生活

  1. life (activities in life)
    日常生活  ―  rìcháng shēnghuó  ―  everyday life
    城市生活  ―  chéngshì shēnghuó  ―  urban life
    生活節奏 / 生活节奏  ―  shēnghuó jiézòu  ―  pace of life
    豪華生活 / 豪华生活  ―  háohuá shēnghuó  ―  high life
    熱愛生活 / 热爱生活  ―  rè’ài shēnghuó  ―  to love one’s life
    生活態度 / 生活态度  ―  shēnghuó tàidù  ―  outlook on life
    我感覺自己的生活很無聊。 [MSC, trad.]
    我感觉自己的生活很无聊。 [MSC, simp.]

    Wǒ gǎnjiào zìjǐ de shēnghuó hěn wúliáo. [Pinyin]
    I feel my life is boring.
    我們都嚮往幸福的生活 [MSC, trad.]
    我们都向往幸福的生活 [MSC, simp.]

    Wǒmen dōu xiàngwǎng xìngfú de shēnghuó. [Pinyin]
    We all long for a happy life.
    這個技術能讓我們的生活更方便。 [MSC, trad.]
    这个技术能让我们的生活更方便。 [MSC, simp.]

    Zhè ge jìshù néng ràng wǒmen de shēnghuó gèng fāngbiàn. [Pinyin]
    This technology can make our lives more convenient.
  2. livelihood
  3. (dialectal) job; task
    生活  ―  zuò shēnghuó  ―  to work
    • 夜久人靜,或聞以行相呼云:「今吾輩有何生活?」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      夜久人静,或闻以行相呼云:“今吾辈有何生活?” [Classical Chinese, simp.]

      From: Song Dynasty, 呉曾, 《能改齋漫錄》
      Yèjiǔrénjìng, huò wén yǐ xíng xiàng hū yún: “Jīn wúbèi yǒuhé shēnghuó?” [Pinyin]
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    • 實際上,拿莫溫對待外頭工人,也並不怎樣客气,因為除了打罵之外,還有更巧妙的方法,譬如派給你難做的「生活」,或者調你去做不願意去做的工作。 [MSC, trad.]
      实际上,拿莫温对待外头工人,也并不怎样客气,因为除了打骂之外,还有更巧妙的方法,譬如派给你难做的“生活”,或者调你去做不愿意去做的工作。 [MSC, simp.]

      From: 1935, Xia Yan, 《包身工》 [Indentured Labor]
      Shíjì shàng,námòwēn duìdài wàitóu gōngrén, yě bìng bù zěnyàng kèqì, yīnwèi chúle dǎmà zhīwài, háiyǒu gèng qiǎomiào de fāngfǎ, pìrú pài gěi nǐ nán zuò de “shēnghuó”, huòzhě diào nǐ qù zuò bù yuànyì qù zuò de gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  4. (dialectal Mandarin) calligraphy brush; inkbrush

Synonyms[edit]

Verb[edit]

生活

  1. to live; to exist; to lead a lifestyle
    健康生活  ―  jiànkāng shēnghuó  ―  to lead a healthy lifestyle

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(せい)(かつ) • (seikatsu

  1. life; livelihood; daily living.

Usage notes[edit]

生活 is distinct from 命 (いのち, inochi, life), because it refers to daily life and livelihood as it is experienced, whereas 命 refers to life as a whole (from birth to death), or as an abstract concept. Both are generally translated as life, however, as this distinction is not normally made in English.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

(せい)(かつ)する • (seikatsu suruintransitive suru (stem (せい)(かつ) (seikatsu shi), past (せい)(かつ)した (seikatsu shita))

  1. live a life

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Noun[edit]

生活 • (saenghwal) (hangeul 생활)

  1. Hanja form? of 생활 (lifestyle, way of life, daily living).

Vietnamese[edit]

Noun[edit]

生活

  1. Hán tự form of sinh hoạt (life).

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