Top 10 Health Magazines – Health, Psychology Today, Men’s Health, Women’s Health and more

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Health is a fitness magazine that is appropriate for all readers. Anything having to do with leading a strong, productive life is contained within, including diet advice, workouts, and informative articles.

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The primary publication on the human mind, Psychology Today features up to date research, trends, findings, and tons of other information involving the ways we think and behave.

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The world’s top men’s fitness magazine, Men’s Health is the definitive authority on news, trends, and techniques associated with life as a healthy man. Food, fashion, and fitness are among the men-centric topics discussed here.

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A women’s magazine that speaks to the modern, practical woman, Women’s Health prides itself on covering the fitness concerns that affect today’s smart, independent women.

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For all your running needs, Runner’s World will have the info to help. Product reviews, techniques, events, and numerous other running-related topics are covered in this magazine.

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A magazine for the overall well-being of women, Shape is not only about staying fit. Topics include healthy eating, celebrities, and fashion. They also feature contests and weight-loss challenges to get you motivated.

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Fighting issues related to aging is a challenge that faces everyone, and Life Extension magazine will discuss the issues, news, and innovations that may extend your life.

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With AD/HD a nationally-recognized disease, ADDitude is the guide to all new advancements, notable people, treatments, and information regarding attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder.

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With AD/HD a nationally-recognized disease, ADDitude is the guide to all new advancements, notable people, treatments, and information regarding attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder.

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Focusing on cutting-edge treatments and medicines, Bottom Line/ Health is a magazine that is dedicated to informing you about the newest health and treatment trends.

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A no gimmicks magazine, Experience Life shares tips on healthy eating, how to move, detox and heal your body.

Subscribe to Health

Health is a fitness magazine that is appropriate for all readers. Anything having to do with leading a strong, productive life is contained within, including diet advice, workouts, and informative articles.

Subscribe to Herb Quarterly

Herbs are used throughout the world as remedies and treatments, and The Herb Quarterly is the publication that supports the herb-loving lifestyle, with detailed explanations, pictures, and much more.

Subscribe to Life Extension

Fighting issues related to aging is a challenge that faces everyone, and Life Extension magazine will discuss the issues, news, and innovations that may extend your life.

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The world’s top men’s fitness magazine, Men’s Health is the definitive authority on news, trends, and techniques associated with life as a healthy man. Food, fashion, and fitness are among the men-centric topics discussed here.

Subscribe to Men's Health Advisor

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For all your running needs, Runner’s World will have the info to help. Product reviews, techniques, events, and numerous other running-related topics are covered in this magazine.

Subscribe to Spirituality & Health

For a magazine that combines fitness advice and trends with an emphasis on religion and spirituality, check out Spirituality & Health.

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Subscribe to Women's Health

A women’s magazine that speaks to the modern, practical woman, Women’s Health prides itself on covering the fitness concerns that affect today’s smart, independent women.

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The only exercise you truly need. Pilates style gives you the exercises along with the rationales. Get fit, stay strong.

Subscribe to Psychology Today

The primary publication on the human mind, Psychology Today features up to date research, trends, findings, and tons of other information involving the ways we think and behave.

Subscribe to Shape

A magazine for the overall well-being of women, Shape is not only about staying fit. Topics include healthy eating, celebrities, and fashion. They also feature contests and weight-loss challenges to get you motivated.

Subscribe to Arthritis Advisor

Aimed at those who suffer from or treat muscle and joint pain, the Arthritis Advisor is a respected magazine published by the Cleveland Clinic.

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Heart disease is one of the major killers of adults throughout the world, and the Cleveland Clinic’s magazine, Heart Advisor, discusses the latest news in regards to treatments.

Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes – Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke, diabetes, and some specific cancers, which until recently were common only in high-income countries, are now becoming the dominant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide (WHO 2002). In addition, rates of cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among migrants from low-risk to high-risk countries almost always increase dramatically. In traditional African societies, for example, CAD is virtually nonexistent, but rates among African Americans are similar to those among Caucasian Americans. These striking changes in rates within countries over time and among migrating populations indicate that the primary determinants of these diseases are not genetic but environmental factors, including diet and lifestyle. Thus, considerable research has been aimed at identifying modifiable determinants of chronic diseases.

Prospective epidemiological studies, some randomized prevention trials, and many short-term studies of intermediate endpoints such as blood pressure and lipids have revealed a good deal about the specific dietary and lifestyle determinants of major chronic diseases. Most of these studies have been conducted in Western countries, in part because of the historical importance of these diseases in the West, but also because they have the most developed research infrastructure. A general conclusion is that reducing identified, modifiable dietary and lifestyle risk factors could prevent most cases of CAD, stroke, diabetes, and many cancers among high-income populations (Willett 2002). These findings are profoundly important, because they indicate that these diseases are not inevitable consequences of a modern society. Furthermore, low rates of these diseases can be attained without drugs or expensive medical facilities, an outcome that is not surprising, because their rates have historically been extremely low in developing countries with few medical facilities. However, preventing these diseases will require changes in behaviors related to smoking, physical activity, and diet; investments in education, food policies, and urban physical infrastructure are needed to support and encourage these changes (see box 44.1).

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Box 44.1

The Insulin Resistance Syndrome. In recent years, researchers have recognized the insulin resistance syndrome (also known as the metabolic syndrome) as a common contributing factor to the development of diabetes, CAD, and some cancers. The syndrome is (more…)

Chronic Disease Prevention

In this section, we briefly review dietary and lifestyle changes that reduce the incidence of chronic disease. The potential magnitude of benefit is also discussed.

Recommended Lifestyle Changes

Specific changes in diet and lifestyle and likely benefits are summarized in . These relationships and supporting evidence are summarized here.

Table 44.1

Convincing and Probable Relationships between Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Chronic Diseases.

Avoid Tobacco Use

Avoidance of smoking by preventing initiation or by cessation for those who already smoke is the single most important way to prevent CVD and cancer (chapter 46). Avoiding the use of smokeless tobacco will also prevent a good deal of oral cancer.

Maintain a Healthy Weight

Obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide (chapter 45). Even though obesity—a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater—has received more attention than overweight, overweight (BMI of 25 to 30) is typically even more prevalent and also confers elevated risks of many diseases. For example, overweight people experience a two- to threefold elevation in the risks of CAD and hypertension and a more than tenfold increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes compared with lean individuals (BMI less than 23) (Willett, Dietz, and Colditz 1999). Both overweight and obese people also experience elevated mortality from cancers of the colon, breast (postmenopausal), kidney, endometrium, and other sites (Calle and others 2003).

Many people with a BMI of less than 25 have gained substantial weight since they were young adults and are also at increased risk of these diseases, even though they are not technically overweight (Willett, Dietz, and Colditz 1999). For example, in rural China, where the average BMI was less than 21 for both men and women, F. B. Hu and others (2000) found that the prevalence of hypertension was nearly five times greater for those with a BMI of approximately 25 than for the leanest people. Because many Asians are experiencing adverse consequences of excess body fat with a BMI of less than 25, the definition of overweight for Asia has recently been expanded to include a BMI of 23 to 25 (WHO 2000). For most people, unless obviously malnourished as an adolescent or young adult, bodyweight should ideally not increase by more than 2 or 3 kilograms after age 20 to maintain optimal health (Willett, Dietz, and Colditz 1999). Thus, a desirable weight for most people should be within the BMI range of 18.5 to 25.0, and preferably less than 23.

Additional valuable information can be obtained by measuring waist circumference, which reflects abdominal fat accumulation. In many studies, waist circumference is a strong predictor of CAD, stroke, and type 2 diabetes, even after controlling for BMI (Willett, Dietz, and Colditz 1999). A waist circumference of approximately 100 centimeters for men and 88 centimeters for women has been used as the criterion for the upper limit of the healthy range in the United States, but for many people this extent of abdominal fat would be far above optimal. Because abdominal circumference is easily assessed, even where scales may not be available, further work to develop locally appropriate criteria could be worthwhile. In the meantime, increases of more than 5 centimeters can be used as a basis for recommending changes in activity patterns and diet.

Views about the causes of obesity and ways to prevent or reduce it have been controversial. Diets low in fat and high in carbohydrates were believed to limit caloric intake spontaneously and thus to control adiposity, but such diets have not reduced bodyweight in trials that have lasted for a year or more (Willett and Leibel 2002). Some researchers have suggested that diets with a high energy density, referring to the amount of energy per volume, offer an alternative explanation for the observed increases in obesity (Swinburn and others 2004), but long-term studies have not examined this theory. Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute significantly to the overconsumption of calories, in part because calories in fluid form appear to be poorly regulated by the body (E. A. Bell, Roe, and Rolls 2003). In children, an increase in soda consumption of one serving per day was associated with an odds ratio of 1.6 for incidence of obesity (Ludwig, Peterson, and Gortmaker 2001), and in a randomized trial, replacement of a standard soda with a zero-calorie diet soda was associated with significant weight loss (Raben and others 2002). Reductions in dietary fiber and increases in the dietary glycemic load (large amounts of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates from refined starches and sugar) may also contribute to obesity (Ebbeling and others 2003; Swinburn and others 2004).

Aspects of the food supply unrelated to its macronutrient composition are also likely to be contributing to the global rise in obesity. Inexpensive food energy from refined grains, sugar, and vegetable oils has become extremely plentiful in most countries. Food manufacturers and suppliers use carefully researched methods to make products based on these cheap ingredients maximally convenient and attractive.

Maintain Daily Physical Activity and Limit Television Watching

Contemporary life in developed nations has markedly reduced people’s opportunities to expend energy, whether in moving from place to place, in the work environment, or at home (Koplan and Dietz 1999). Dramatic reductions in physical activity are also occurring in developing countries because of urbanization, increased availability of motorized transportation to replace walking and bicycle riding, and mechanization of labor. However, regular physical activity is a key element in weight control and prevention of obesity (IARC 2002; Swinburn and others 2004). For example, among middle-aged West African women, more walking was associated with a three-unit lower BMI (Sobngwi, Gautier, and Mbanya 2003), and in China, car owners are 80 percent more likely to be obese (Hu 2002).

In addition to its key role in maintaining a healthy weight, regular physical activity reduces the risk of CAD, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, osteoporotic fractures, osteoarthritis, depression, and erectile dysfunction (). Important health benefits have even been associated with walking for half an hour per day, but greater reductions in risk are seen with longer durations of physical activity and more intense activity.

The number of hours of television watched per day is associated with increased obesity rates among both children and adults (Hernandez and others 1999; Ruangdaraganon and others 2002) and with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and gallstones (F. B. Hu, Leitzmann, and others 2001; Leitzmann and others 1999). This association is likely attributable both to reduced physical activity and to increased consumption of foods and beverages high in calories, which are typically those promoted on television. Decreases in television watching reduce weight (Robinson 1999), and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of two hours of television watching per day.

Eat a Healthy Diet

Medical experts have long recognized the effects of diet on the risk of CVD, but the relationship between diet and many other conditions, including specific cancers, diabetes, cataracts, macular degeneration, cholelithiasis, renal stones, dental disease, and birth defects, have been documented more recently. The following list discusses six aspects of diet for which strong evidence indicates important health implications (). These goals are consistent with a detailed 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) report (WHO and FAO 2003).

  • Replace saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats, including sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats will reduce the risk of CAD (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002; Institute of Medicine 2002; WHO and FAO 2003) by reducing serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Also, polyunsaturated fats (including the long-chain omega-3 fish oils and probably alpha-linoleic acid, the primary plant omega-3 fatty acid) can prevent ventricular arrhythmias and thereby reduce fatal CAD. In a case-control study in Costa Rica, where fish intake was extremely low, the risk of myocardial infarction was 80 percent lower in those with the highest alpha-linoleic acid intake (Baylin and others 2003). Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids are suboptimal in many populations, particularly if fish intake is low and the primary oils consumed are low in omega-3 fatty acids (for example, partially hydrogenated soybean, corn, sunflower, or palm oil). These findings have major implications, because changes in the type of oil used for food preparation are often quite feasible and not expensive.

Trans fatty acids produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils have uniquely adverse effects on blood lipids (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002; Institute of Medicine 2002) and increase risks of CAD (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002); on a gram-for-gram basis, both the effects on blood lipids and the relationship with CAD risk are considerably more adverse than for saturated fat. In many developing countries, trans fat consumption is high because partially hydrogenated soybean oil is among the cheapest fats available. In South Asia, vegetable ghee, which has largely replaced traditional ghee, contains approximately 50 percent trans fatty acids (Ascherio and others 1996). Independent of other risk factors, higher intakes of trans fat and lower intakes of polyunsaturated fat increase risk of type 2 diabetes (F. B. Hu, van Dam, and Liu 2001).

  • Ensure generous consumption of fruits and vegetables and adequate folic acid intake. Strong evidence indicates that high intakes of fruits and vegetables will reduce the risk of CAD and stroke (Conlin 1999). Some of this benefit is mediated by higher intakes of potassium, but folic acid probably also plays a role (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002). Supplementation with folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defect pregnancies. Substantial evidence also suggests that low folic acid intake is associated with greater risk of colon—and possibly breast—cancer and that use of multiple vitamins containing folic acid reduces the risk of these cancers (Giovannucci 2002). Findings relating folic acid intake to CVD and some cancers have major implications for many parts of the developing world. In many areas, consumption of fruits and vegetables is low. For example, in northern China, approximately half the adult population is deficient in folic acid (Hao and others 2003).
  • Consume cereal products in their whole-grain, high-fiber form. Consuming grains in a whole-grain, high-fiber form has double benefits. First, consumption of fiber from cereal products has consistently been associated with lower risks of CAD and type 2 diabetes (F. B. Hu, van Dam, and Liu 2001; F. B. Hu and Willett 2002), which may be because of both the fiber itself and the vitamins and minerals naturally present in whole grains. High consumption of refined starches exacerbates the metabolic syndrome and is associated with higher risks of CAD (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002) and type 2 diabetes (F. B. Hu, van Dam, and Liu 2001). Second, higher consumption of dietary fiber also appears to facilitate weight control (Swinburn and others 2004) and helps prevent constipation.
  • Limit consumption of sugar and sugar-based beverages. Sugar (free sugars refined from sugarcane or sugar beets and high-fructose corn sweeteners) has no nutritional value except for calories and, thus, has negative health implications for those at risk of overweight. Furthermore, sugar contributes to the dietary glycemic load, which exacerbates the metabolic syndrome and is related to the risk of diabetes and CAD (F. B. Hu, van Dam, and Liu 2001; F. B. Hu and Willett 2002; Schulze and others 2004). WHO has suggested an upper limit of 10 percent of energy from sugar, but lower intakes are usually desirable because of the adverse metabolic effects and empty calories.
  • Limit excessive caloric intake from any source. Given the importance of obesity and overweight in the causation of many chronic diseases, avoiding excessive consumption of energy from any source is fundamentally important. Because calories consumed as beverages are less well-regulated than calories from solid food, limiting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is particularly important.

  • Limit sodium intake. The principle justification for limiting sodium is its effect on blood pressure, a major risk factor for stroke and coronary disease (chapter 33). WHO has suggested an upper limit of 1.7 grams of sodium per day (5 grams of salt per day) (WHO and FAO 2003).

Potential of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors to Prevent Chronic Diseases

Several lines of evidence indicate that realistic modifications of diet and lifestyle can prevent most CAD, stroke, diabetes, colon cancer, and smoking-related cancers. Less progress has been made in identifying practically modifiable causes of breast and prostate cancers.

One line of evidence is based on declines in CAD in countries that have implemented preventive programs. Rates of CAD mortality have been cut in half in several high-income countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The most dramatic example is that of Finland (box 44.2).

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Box 44.2

Success in Finland. Finland provides one of the best-documented examples of a community intervention. In 1972, Finland had the world’s highest CVD mortality rate. Planners examined the policy and environmental factors contributing to CVD and sought appropriate (more…)

Other evidence derives from randomized intervention studies. These often have serious limitations for estimating the potential magnitude of benefits, because typically only one or a few factors are modified, durations are usually only a few years, and noncompliance with lifestyle change is often substantial. Nevertheless, some examples are illustrative of the potential benefit. In two randomized studies among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes, those assigned to a program emphasizing dietary changes, weight loss, and physical activity experienced only half the risk of incident diabetes (Knowler and others 2002; Tuomilehto and others 2001). The Lyon Heart Study, conducted among those with existing heart disease, found a Mediterranean-type diet high in omega-3 fatty acids reduced recurrent infarction by 70 percent compared with an American Heart Association diet (de Lorgeril and others 1994).

A third approach is to estimate the percentage of disease that is potentially preventable by reducing multiple behavioral risk factors using prospective cohort studies. Among U.S. adults, more than 90 percent of type 2 diabetes, 80 percent of CAD, 70 percent of stroke, and 70 percent of colon cancer are potentially preventable by a combination of nonsmoking, avoidance of overweight, moderate physical activity, healthy diet, and moderate alcohol consumption (Willett 2002).

Collectively, these findings indicate that the low rates of these diseases suggested by international comparisons and time trends are attainable by realistic, moderate changes that are compatible with 21st-century lifestyles.

Interventions

Interventions aimed at changing diet and lifestyle factors include educating individuals, changing the environment, modifying the food supply, undertaking community interventions, and implementing economic policies. In most cases, quantifying the effects of the intervention is difficult, because behavioral changes may take many years and synergies are potentially important but hard to estimate in formal studies. Substantial nihilism often exists regarding the ability to change populations’ diets or behaviors, but major changes are possible over extended periods of time. For example, per capita egg consumption in the United States decreased from approximately 420 to 270 per year between 1940 and 1990 following recommendations for preventing CAD (though in reality, the evidence for benefits was meager). Similarly, the prevalence of smoking, despite its being a physically addictive behavior, halved among men in the United States between 1965 and 2000. Because changing behaviors related to diet and lifestyle require sustained efforts, long-term persistence is needed. However, opportunities exist that do not require individual behavior changes, and these can lead to more rapid benefits.

Educational Interventions

Efforts to change diets, physical activity patterns, and other aspects of lifestyle have traditionally attempted to educate individuals through schools, health care providers, worksites, and general media. These efforts will continue to play an important role, but they can be strongly reinforced by policy and environmental changes.

School-based Programs

School-based programs include the roles of nutrition and physical activity in maintaining physical and mental health (box 44.3). School food services should provide healthy meals, both because they directly affect health and because they provide a special opportunity to teach by example. In many countries, school-based physical education remains a significant source of physical activity for young people. In China, 72 percent of children age 6 to 18 engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for a median of 90 to 100 minutes per week (Tudor-Locke and others 2003). Maintaining these programs should be a high priority because they have likely contributed to the historically low rates of obesity in such countries.

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Box 44.3

The Planet Health Program. Planet Health, developed for middle school students, in the United States, has an immediate goal of reducing television viewing time with the long-range goal of preventing unhealthy weight gain (Gortmaker and others 1999). Teachers (more…)

Worksite Interventions

Worksite interventions can efficiently include a wide variety of health promotion activities because workers spend a large portion of their waking hours and eat a large percentage of their food there. Interventions can include educating employees; screening them for behavioral risk factors; offering incentive programs to walk, ride a bicycle, or take public transportation to work; offering exercise programs during breaks or after work; improving the physical environment to promote activity; and providing healthier foods in cafeterias (box 44.4). Worksite health promotion can result in a positive return on investment through lower health costs and fewer sick days.

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Box 44.4

Live for Life®. Johnson & Johnson introduced Live for Life in 1979 with the goal of making its employees the healthiest in the world (Bly, Jones, and Richardson 1986). In 1993, the company integrated its health and wellness program with (more…)

Interventions by Health Care Providers

Controlled intervention trials for smoking cessation and physical activity have shown that physician counseling, especially when accompanied by supporting written material, can be efficacious in modifying behavior. Studies of dietary counseling by physicians indicate that even brief messages about nutrition can influence behavior and that the magnitude of the effect is related to the intensity of the intervention (Pignone and others 2003). Identifying patients who are overweight or obese, or who are gaining weight but are not yet overweight, is an initial step in preventing and treating overweight. However, many physicians are not well trained to measure and calculate BMI and identify weight problems.

Transportation Policy and Environmental Design

Transportation policies and the design of urban environments are fundamental determinants of physical activity and therefore influence the risks of obesity and other chronic diseases. Countries can take a number of steps to make positive changes.

Limit the Role of Automobiles

In wealthy countries, the automobile has strongly influenced the trend toward low-density, automobile-based suburban developments, many built without sidewalks. These sprawling settlements tend to have few services within walking distance and are usually not linked to public transporationt. Dependence on automobiles affects physical activity, because those who use public transportation tend to walk more. In a prospective study in eight provinces in China, 14 percent of households acquired a car between 1889 and 1997, and the likelihood of men becoming obese during the same period was twice as great in households that acquired a car than in those that did not (A. C. Bell, Ge, and Popkin 2002).

National policies strongly influence automobile use and dependency. In the United States, low taxes on gasoline, free parking, and wide streets encourage car ownership: almost 92 percent of U.S. households own at least one car, and 59 percent own two or more cars (Pucher and Dijkstra 2003). In contrast, in most of Western Europe, narrow streets, limited parking, and high gasoline prices make the costs of automobile use almost double those in the United States (Pucher and Dijkstra 2003). As a result, Europeans walk or bike more and use their cars approximately 50 percent less than their American counterparts. Investment in roads rather than in public transportation creates a vicious cycle: poor public transportation systems lead to more dependency on the automobile.

As car use grows, injuries and deaths associated with automobile accidents also grow. In China, the number of four-wheeled vehicles increased from about 60,000 to more than 50 million between 1951 and 1999, and traffic fatalities increased from about 6,000 to more than 413,000 (S. Y. Wang and others 2003). Many innovative strategies have been developed to discourage private automobile use and to promote public transportation, walking, and bicycling (see box 44.5). Singapore has long been in the lead in relation to such efforts: a combination of limiting the number of licenses issued, implementing a vehicle quota system, and introducing a road pricing system has limited personal car ownership and congestion throughout the country. Other nations and regions are now enacting similar road pricing systems or congestion taxes. For example, London’s congestion charging system levies a fee of approximately US$8 per day for cars entering central London. Since its inception in 2003, the charge has reduced congestion in the city and is expected to channel funds back into the city’s transportation facilities.

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Box 44.5

Reducing Automobile Use in Brazil. Curitiba, Brazil, provides an example of the benefits of a strategy that reduces automobile use and increases use of public transportation. In 1965, city planners adopted a master plan that promoted development along (more…)

Unfortunately some countries, particularly China, have taken a different approach to their future transportation needs. Government initiatives that encourage families to buy automobiles include lowering taxes, simplifying registration procedures, and allowing foreign financing. In Beijing alone, residents purchased 400,000 cars in 2003.

Promote Walking and Bicycle Riding

Walking or cycling for transportation and leisure are effective and practical means of engaging in physical activity and are still the most common ways to travel in many developing countries. In Bangkok and Manila, only 25 percent of travel is by car, motorcycle, or taxi, compared with 75 percent by public transportation or walking (Pendakur 2000). In Madras, India, only 8 percent of the population travels by private, motorized transportation; 22 percent of people walk; 20 percent bike; and the rest use public transportation (Pendakur 2000). In China, approximately 90 percent of the urban population walks or rides a bicycle to work, shopping, or school each day (G. Hu and others 2002). Walking or biking is more likely to be prevalent in smaller cities—that is, those with 1 million to 5 million people—than in larger ones.

Bicycle riding and walking are also important for children’s health. Most American children do not walk or bike to school, even when distances are short (box 44.6). In contrast, almost 90 percent of Chinese children under 12 walk or ride a bicycle to school (Hu 2002).

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Box 44.6

Walking and Cycling to School. One of the most effective ways to promote walking and cycling is through local schools. The Safe Routes to School program (http://www.saferoutestoschools.org/), established in Marin County, California, is a private-public (more…)

In many areas, the shift toward private car use has not yet begun and can perhaps be forestalled by policies that benefit walkers and cyclists rather than drivers. Such policies include implementing road designs that promote a safe and well-lit environment for walking and cycling, including traffic-calming measures to reduce automobile speeds.

Many Western European countries have taken steps to increase safety for cyclists and walkers. In Germany and the Netherlands, bike paths serve as travel routes, not just weekend recreational destinations as they do in the United States. The former countries have invested heavily in bike paths and have also created extensive car-free areas in cities, with well-lit sidewalks, clearly marked crosswalks, and pedestrian islands that have improved safety. Both countries have increased the number of bicycle-friendly streets (on which cars are permitted but bicycles have the right of way) and have created systems to separate streams of traffic, including cars, pedestrians, and bicycles. A meta-analysis of selected traffic-calming studies in many countries reported reductions in traffic speed, accidents, injuries, and fatalities and an increase in bicycle use and walking (Bunn and others 2003).

Design Cities and Towns to Promote Health

Handy and others’ (2002) comprehensive assessment of recent research on urban planning concludes that a combination of urban design, land-use patterns, and transportation systems that promotes walking and bicycling will help create active, healthier, and more livable communities. In densely developed cities that have been built around public transportation rather than away from it, individuals are much more likely to take public transit, walk, or bicycle than in other areas and to weigh less and be less likely to suffer from hypertension (Ewing, Schieber, and Zegeer 2003; Lopez 2004; Saelens, Sallis, and Frank 2003).

Those living in walker-friendly neighborhoods also appear to be more mentally healthy and are more likely to know their neighbors, to be socially active, and to participate in the political process (Leyden 2003). In contrast, urban sprawl has been linked to decreases in mental health and social capital (Frumkin 2002) as well as anger and frustration over long commutes (Surface Transportation Policy Project 1999). Sprawl adversely affects the elderly in particular because they are unable to walk to places of interest and many cannot drive. Such isolation does not promote good physical or mental health.

The so-called smart growth movement has resulted from concerns about urban sprawl and unsustainable development and is encouraging governments worldwide to rethink how they develop new areas and redevelop older suburbs and cities. Smart growth principles include mixing land uses, using compact building designs, including a range of transportation and housing choices, building walker-friendly neighborhoods in attractive communities with a distinctive sense of place, and implementing a philosophy of directing development toward existing communities and the preservation of open space (Office of the Administrator 2001) (box 44.7).

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Box 44.7

Enhancing Urban Life in the Republic of Korea. In Seoul, the government is managing growth by creating six satellite communities with high-rise residential buildings outside the city center. These communities are intended to become new job-creation centers (more…)

The involvement of public health practitioners in transportation planning and building design is becoming more common. In Edinburgh, a health impact assessment conducted on proposed options for transportation policy showed the effects of specific choices on both affluent members of the community and the poor. Its recommendations, now adopted, included new spending on pedestrian safety, a citywide bicycle network, more greenways and park-and-ride programs, and more rail transportation or bus services. Priorities are to benefit pedestrians first, cyclists second, public transportation users third, freight and delivery people fourth, and car users last. Establishing criteria for building design can also lead to increases in physical activity. For example, increasing signage promoting stair use, as well as the attractiveness of the facilities themselves, encourages people to use the stairs (Boutelle and others 2001) (box 44.8).

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Box 44.8

Promoting Physical Activity in Brazil. One successful example of increasing activity is Agita São Paulo, a multilevel physical activity initiative designed for the 34 million citizens of Brazil’s São Paulo state (Matsudo and others 2002). (more…)

Improved Food Supply

People’s diets can be enhanced by improving the food supply. The usual position of the food industry is that it simply provides whatever consumers demand, but this argument is misleading, because the industry spends more than US$12 billion annually to influence consumer choices just within the United States and many times this amount globally. Much of this sum goes to promote foods with adverse health effects, and children are primary targets.

Improving Processing and Manufacturing

Altering the manufacturing process can rapidly and effectively improve diets because such action does not require the slow process of behavioral change. One example is eliminating the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, which destroys essential omega-3 fatty acids and creates trans fatty acids. European manufacturers have largely eliminated trans fatty acids from their food supply by altering production methods.

Regulations can facilitate changes in manufacturing directly or indirectly by providing an incentive for manufacturers to change their processes. For example, in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that food manufacturers had to include trans fatty acid content on the standard food label. Following imposition of this requirement, several large food companies said that they would reduce or eliminate trans fats, and many more are planning to do so (U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2003). In Mauritius, the government required a change in the commonly used cooking oil from mostly palm oil to soybean oil, which changed people’s fatty acid intake and reduced their serum cholesterol levels (Uusitalo and others 1996). Changes in types of fat can often be almost invisible and inexpensive. Omega-3 fatty acid intakes can be increased by incorporating oils from rapeseed, mustard, or soybean into manufactured foods, cooking oils sold for use at home, or both. Selective breeding and genetic engineering provide alternative ways to improve the healthfulness of oils by modifying their fatty acid composition.

When the consumption of processed food is high, a reduction in salt consumption will usually require changes at the manufacturing level, because processed food is a major salt source. If the salt content of foods is reduced gradually, the change is imperceptible to consumers. Coordination among manufacturers or government regulation is needed; otherwise producers whose foods are lower in salt may be placed at a disadvantage. Unfortunately, good examples are not available. Another example of improved processing would be to reduce the refining of grain products, which can be done in small, almost invisible decrements.

Fortifying Food

Food fortification has eliminated iodine deficiency, pellagra, and beriberi in much of the world. In regions where iodine deficiency remains a serious problem, fortification should be a high priority. Folic acid intake is suboptimal in many regions of both developing and developed countries. Fortifying foods with folic acid is extremely inexpensive and could substantially reduce the rates of several chronic diseases. Grain products—such as flour, rice, and pasta—are usually the best foods to fortify, and in many countries, they are already being fortified with other B vitamins. Since 1998, grain products in the United States have been fortified with folic acid, which has almost eliminated folate deficiency, and rates of neural tube defect pregnancies have declined by about 19 percent (Honein and others 2001). Where intakes of vitamins B12 and B6 are also low and contribute to elevations of homocysteine, as among vegetarian populations in India, simultaneous fortification of food with these vitamins should be considered. The effects of fortification on reducing CVD are not considered proven, but the potential benefits are huge; therefore, intervention trials to evaluate the effects of fortification should be a high priority.

Increasing the Availability and Reducing the Cost of Healthy Foods

Policies regarding the production, importation, distribution, and sale of specific foods can influence their cost and availability. Policies may be directed at the focus of agricultural research and the types of production promoted by extension services. Policies often promote grains, dairy products, sugar, and beef, whereas those that encourage the production and consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and healthy oils would tend to enhance rather than reduce health.

Promoting Healthy Food Choices and Limiting Aggressive Marketing to Children

Almost every national effort to improve nutrition incorporates the promotion of healthy food choices, such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Ideally, such efforts are coordinated among government groups, retailers, professional groups, and nonprofit organizations, and investment in such efforts should include the careful testing and refining of social-marketing strategies.

Another strategy is to protect consumers from aggressive marketing of unhealthy foods. Producers spend billions of dollars a year encouraging children to consume foods that are detrimental to their health. Manufacturers and fast-food chains personify food products with cartoon characters; display food brands on toys; and issue “educational” card games that subvert children’s natural gift for play, story telling, and make believe. The willingness to limit advertising depends on a country’s political culture, but the public clearly distinguishes between advertising aimed at adults and that targeted at children. For example, in the United States, 46 percent of adults surveyed supported restrictions on advertising to children (Blendon 2002). Restrictions can range from banning advertising to children to limiting the types of products that advertisers may promote to this audience.

Initiatives at the Community Level

Nations and regions can promote a variety of initiatives to encourage greater physical activity and better nutrition. These initiatives are likely to be most effective when they are multi-faceted and coordinated and when they are developed with the active involvement of individuals and organizations within communities (Puska and others 1998).

Many countries are undertaking efforts to educate their populations about healthy lifestyles. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, a WHO collaborating center for research and training for CVD control, prevention, and rehabilitation for cardiac patients, has developed a comprehensive, integrated community intervention that involves schools, worksites, health care facilities, food services, urban planners, and the media. Physical activity is promoted by creating safe routes for walking and bicycle riding and by organizing recreational walking that involves entire families (http://ihhp.mui.ac.ir).

South Africa’s Community Health Intervention Programme, a partnership between an insurance company and an academic institution, has created programs targeted to specific age groups, including children and older adults. The program’s twice-weekly classes have reduced blood pressure and increased strength and balance (Lambert, Bohlmann, and Kolbe-Alexander 2001) (box 44.9).

Box Icon

Box 44.9

A Comprehensive Intervention Approach in South Africa. The Coronary Risk Factor Study in South Africa (Rossouw and others 1993) tested community interventions at different levels of intensity in two communities with a third control community. The target (more…)

Singapore’s Fit and Trim Program uses a multidisciplinary approach to increase physical activity and healthy diets among schoolchildren. Between 1992 and 2000, the rate of obesity declined by 13.1 to 16.6 percent for children age 11 to 12 and 15 to 16 (Toh, Cutter, and Chew 2002) (box 44.10 outlines the national program for adults).

Box Icon

Box 44.10

The Singapore National Healthy Lifestyle Program. Because CVD and cancer had become the major causes of death in Singapore, the government adopted the National Healthy Lifestyle Program in 1992 (Cutter, Tan, and Chew 2001). This coordinated, multisectoral (more…)

Economic Policies

Economic policies can have important effects on behavior and choices, and these policies have been particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of smoking (see chapter 46). Policies that could influence diet and physical activity deserve careful consideration because they are rarely neutral and often support unhealthy behaviors. Consider the following examples:

  • Subsidies can favor the consumption of less healthy foods, such as sugar, refined grains, beef, and high-fat dairy products as opposed to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes, and fish. Poland provides a striking example of how changes in subsidies can affect health (box 44.11). Governments often subsidize foods indirectly by sheltering them from sales taxes in the recognition that they are essential; however, this logic should not extend to foods with adverse health effects, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and those high in trans fats. Legislation can make this distinction, providing a modest economic incentive for healthier choices and at the same time conveying important nutritional messages (see chapter 11).
  • Use of individual automobiles is often subsidized by building and maintaining highways, providing inexpensive parking, and imposing low taxes on petroleum products that do not fully reflect their societal and environmental costs. Increasing taxes on petroleum products and subsidizing public transportation could have an important effect on choice of transportation modality, which as noted earlier, has major effects on health.

  • Walking, riding bicycles, and using public transportation can be promoted by economic policies that, in addition to providing better infrastructure, include discounts on transportation fares, provide secure bicycle parking, and reduce health insurance premiums.

Box Icon

Box 44.11

Poland: A Dramatic Decline in Heart Disease. After Poland’s transition to a democratic government in the early 1990s, the government removed large subsidies for butter and lard, and consumption of nonhydrogenated vegetable fat increased rapidly (Zatonski, (more…)

Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions

Only a few studies have described interventions for lifestyle diseases in developing countries.

Modeling Likely Interventions

Primary targets for reducing lifestyle diseases include changing the fat composition of the diet, limiting sodium intake, and engaging in regular physical activity.

Using available data, we calculated a range of estimates under given assumptions for the cost-effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat, replacing trans fat with polyunsaturated fat, and reducing salt intake. An increase in moderate physical activity by three to five hours per week is considered likely to lower the risk of many diseases, but data to model the cost-effectiveness of this intervention are not currently available. For further details of methods and assumptions underlying the analyses presented here, see the Web site version of this book.

Reducing Saturated Fat Content

In the base case, assuming a 3 percent drop in cholesterol and a US$6 per person cost of the intervention, averting one disability-adjusted life year (DALY) would cost as little as US$1,865 in South Asia and as much as US$4,012 in the Middle East and North Africa. The intervention’s effectiveness could be increased by replacing part of the saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat, which has additional beneficial effects mediated by mechanisms other than LDL cholesterol (see and ).

Table 44.2

Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios, Selected Interventions, by Region (US$/DALY averted).

Table 44.3

Two-Way Sensitivity Analysis of the Costs of the Intervention to Reduce Saturated Fat Content and of the Relative Risk Reduction in CAD Events, South Asia (US$/DALY averted).

Replacing Dietary Trans Fat from Partial Hydrogenation with Polyunsaturated Fat

We could not use the model for saturated fat to estimate the effects of replacing trans fat with polyunsaturated fat because only a small part of the benefit is attributable to reducing LDL cholesterol (F. B. Hu and Willett 2002). Trans fats also adversely affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, endothelial function, and inflammatory markers. In addition, increases in polyunsaturated fat (assuming a mix of N-6 and omega-3 fatty acids) will reduce LDL cholesterol, insulin resistance, and probably fatal cardiac arrhythmias.

In calculations that are based only on the adverse effects on LDL and HDL, replacing 2 percent of the energy from trans fat with polyunsaturated fat was estimated to reduce CAD by 7 to 8 percent (Grundy 1992; Willett and Ascherio 1994). Epidemiological studies, which include the contributions of the additional causal pathways, suggest a much greater reduction, from about 25 to 40 percent (F. B. Hu and others 1997; Oomen and others 2001). Another likely benefit is a reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes: estimates indicate that the same 2 percent reduction would reduce incidence by 40 percent (Salmeron and others 2001).

Because voluntary action by industry (as has nearly been achieved in the Netherlands) or by regulation (as occurred in Denmark) can eliminate partially hydrogenated fat from the diet, this initiative does not require consumer education, and the costs can be extremely low. In an analysis required before implementing food labeling, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2003) estimated that trans fat labeling would be highly cost-effective. Even though the effect of labeling itself was estimated to have only a modest effect on consumer behavior, as noted earlier, it is having a major effect on manufacturers’ behavior.

The potential for reducing CVD rates by replacing trans fats with polyunsaturated fats will depend on the diets of specific populations. Whereas the intake of trans fat is low in China, it is likely to be high in parts of India, Pakistan, and other Asian countries because of the extraordinarily high content in commonly used cooking fats.

presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis assuming the two different estimates for CAD reduction: 7 percent and 40 percent. We used costs of US$0.50 per adult per year, which was the maximal cost in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration analysis, and of US$6.00 per adult per year using traditional health education approaches. The lower estimate—or one even lower—is possible because trans fat can be eliminated at the source rather than depending entirely on changes in individual behavior. With the lower cost, the smaller effect estimate leads to a cost-effectiveness ratio of between US$25 and US$73 per DALY averted, depending on the region, and with the higher-effect estimate, the intervention can be cost saving.

Reducing the Salt Content of Manufactured Foods through Legislation and an Accompanying Education Campaign

shows the base-case cost-effectiveness of a legislated reduction in salt content. The intervention appears to be relatively cost-effective, with a cost per DALY averted of US$1,325 in South Asia to US$3,056 in the Middle East and North Africa. Those regional variations are attributable to differing risk profiles across regions as well as to price differentials for the costs of treating disease sequelae.

The actual blood pressure reduction from lower salt consumption could vary from the base-case assumption, as could the costs of the education campaign. shows the results of lower costs of the education campaign and higher or lower effects of the intervention on blood pressure. These results may argue for initial efforts to focus on reductions in the use of salt during the manufacturing process with no public education campaign. The cost-effectiveness of such a change is high and could be augmented with a public education campaign only if needed to support the legislated change. At lower implementation costs, the intervention is highly cost-effective, even with half the assumed effect on blood pressure.

Table 44.4

Two-Way Sensitivity Analysis of the Costs of the Intervention to Reduce Salt Content and Its Effectiveness, South Asia (US$/DALY averted).

Adopting Physical Activity Interventions

Even though health experts believe that physical activity interventions are effective in reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases, no studies of their cost-effectiveness are available from developing countries. If people walk voluntarily (the model assumes no opportunity cost), a net economic benefit would accrue to all segments of the U.S. population. If we project the economic benefits to the entire U.S. population and assume 25 percent compliance by the sedentary population, the voluntary program would generate US$6.8 billion in savings (in 2001 U.S. dollars).

Aggregate Costs of Obesity and Unhealthy Lifestyles

A series of U.S. studies appears to confirm that the avoidable costs of chronic diseases are substantial, although many developing countries have not yet experienced the full demands on their health sectors resulting from these conditions. Colditz (1999) estimates that obesity is responsible for 7 percent of all U.S. direct health care costs and that inactivity is responsible for an additional 2.4 percent of all health care costs. Indirect costs associated with obesity and inactivity account for another 5 percent of health care costs. Pronk and others (1999) assess the difference in health care costs between adult patients with and without risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (physical activity, BMI, and smoking status) and find that a healthier lifestyle of physical activity three times per week, a moderate BMI, and nonsmoking status reduce health care costs by 49 percent compared with an unhealthy lifestyle.

Cost-Effectiveness of Community-based Interventions

Populationwide and community-based interventions appear to be cost-effective if they reach large populations, address high-mortality and high-morbidity diseases, and are multipronged and integrated efforts. The full costs of achieving changes in behavior and policy are often complex and difficult to estimate. Interventions may yield additional spinoff benefits. For instance, decisions to reduce children’s television viewing could easily improve school outcomes as well as reduce childhood obesity. Similarly, increasing walking and bicycle riding for transportation could reduce air pollution.

Research and Development Priorities

A number of research and development priorities have been identified:

  • Conduct randomized trials of the use of folic acid and alpha-linoleic acid to prevent CAD in developing countries. These interventions cost little, and the potential benefits are large and rapid.

  • Develop prospective cohort studies of dietary and lifestyle factors in developing and transition countries to refine the understanding of risk factors in those contexts. To date, almost all such studies have taken place in Europe and North America.

  • Develop surveillance systems for chronic diseases and for major risk factors, such as obesity, in developing countries.

  • Develop additional multifaceted, community-based demonstration programs in developing countries to document the feasibility of lifestyle changes and to learn more about effective strategies.

  • Conduct detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of various prevention strategies to modify dietary and lifestyle factors.

Recommended Priority Interventions

An overall objective is to develop comprehensive national and local plans that take advantage of every opportunity to encourage and promote healthy eating and active living. These plans would involve health care providers; worksites; schools; media; urban planners; all levels of food production, processing, and preparation; and governments. The goal is cultural change in the direction of healthy living. An important element in cultural change is national leadership by individuals and by professional organizations. Specific interventions will depend on local physical and cultural conditions and should be based on careful analysis of existing dietary and activity patterns and their determinants; however, the following interventions can be considered (specific interventions for control of smoking are discussed elsewhere):

  • Physical activity:

    • Develop transportation policies and a physical environment to promote walking and riding bicycles. This intervention includes constructing sidewalks and protected bicycle paths and lanes that are attractive, safe, well-lighted, and functional with regard to destinations.

    • Adopt policies that promote livable, walker-friendly communities that include parks and are centered around access to public transportation.

    • Encourage the use of public transportation and discourage overdependence on private automobiles.

    • Promote the use of stairs. Building codes can require the inclusion of accessible and attractive stairways.

  • Healthy diets:

    • Develop comprehensive school programs that integrate nutrition into core curricula and healthy nutrition into school food services. Regional or national standards to promote healthy eating should be developed for school food services. Programs should also aim at limiting television watching, in part by promoting attractive alternatives.

    • Work with the agriculture sector and food industries to replace unhealthy fats with healthy fats, including adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. This goal can be achieved through a combination of education, regulation, and incentives. Specific actions will depend on local sources of fat and on regional production and distribution. For example, in areas where palm oil is dominant, research could focus on developing strains that are lower in saturated fat and higher in unsaturated fat through selective breeding or genetic alteration. Labeling requirements or regulation can be used to discourage or eliminate the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and to promote the use of nonhydrogenated unsaturated oils instead.

    • Require clear labeling of energy content for all packaged foods, including fast food.

    • Use tax policies to encourage the consumption of healthier foods. For example, high-sugar sodas could be fully taxed and not subsidized in the same way as healthier foods.

    • Emphasize the production and consumption of healthy food products in agriculture support and extension programs.

    • Implement folic acid fortification if folic acid intake is low.

    • Ensure that health providers regularly weigh both children and adult patients, track their weights over time, and provide counseling regarding diet and activity if they are already overweight or if unhealthy weight gain is occurring during adulthood. Those activities should be integrated with programs that address undernutrition. Health care providers should be encouraged to set a good example by not smoking, by exercising regularly, and by eating healthy diets.

    • Promote healthy foods at worksite food services. Worksites can also promote physical activity by providing financial incentives for using public transportation or riding bicycles (and by not subsidizing automobiles by providing free parking). Providing areas for exercise during work breaks and showers may be useful.

    • Set standards that restrict the promotion of foods high in sugar, refined starch, and saturated and trans fats to children on television and elsewhere.

    • Set national standards for the amount of sodium in processed foods.

  • National campaigns:

    • Invest in developing locally appropriate health messages related to diet, physical activity, and weight control. This effort is best done in cooperation with government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations so that consistent messages can be used on television and radio; at health care settings, schools, and worksites; and elsewhere. This effort should use the best social-marketing techniques available, with messages continuously evaluated for effectiveness.

    • Develop a sustainable surveillance system that monitors weight and height, physical activity, and key dietary variables.

Implementation of the recommended policies to promote health and well-being is often not straightforward because of opposition by powerful and well-funded political and economic forces, such as those involved in the tobacco, automobile, food, and oil industries (Nestle 2002). The solutions will depend on a country’s specific political landscape. However, experiences in many countries indicate that alliances of public interest groups, professional organizations, and motivated individuals can overcome such powerful interests. Strategies should start with sound science and can use a mix of mass media, lobbying efforts, and lawsuits. Also, the food industry is far from monolithic, and elements can often be identified whose interests coincide with health promotion, which can create valuable partnerships. As an example, the willingness of some margarine manufacturers to invest in developing products free of trans fatty acids greatly helped the effort to reduce these fats, because these producers then became proponents for labeling the trans fat content of foods. Protection of children can be a powerful lever because of almost universal concern about their welfare and the recognition that they cannot be responsible for the long-term consequences of their diet and lifestyle choices.

Conclusions

Many of the ongoing diet and lifestyle interventions in low-and middle-income countries are relatively recent, and few have documented reductions in the rates of major chronic diseases. However, the successes of Finland, Singapore, and many other high-income countries in reducing rates of CAD, stroke, and smoking-related cancers strongly suggest that similar benefits will emerge in the developing countries.

Acknowledgments

The authors appreciate Hilary Farmer’s assistance in preparing this manuscript.

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  55. Pronk N. P., Goodman M. J., O’Connor P. J., Martinson B. C. Relationship between Modifiable Health Risks and Short-Term Health Care Charges. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282:2235–39. [PubMed: 10605975]
  56. Pucher J., Dijkstra L. Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from the Netherlands and Germany. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93:1509–16. [PMC free article: PMC1448001] [PubMed: 12948971]
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  59. Robinson T. N. Reducing Children’s Television Viewing to Prevent Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999;282:1561–67. [PubMed: 10546696]
  60. Rossouw J. E., Jooste P. L., Chalton D. O., Jordaan E. R., Langenhoven M. L., Jordaan P. C. et al. Community-Based Intervention: The Coronary Risk Factor Study (Coris). International Journal of Epidemiology. 1993;22:428–38. [PubMed: 8359958]
  61. Ruangdaraganon N., Kotchabhakdi N., Udomsubpayakul U., Kunanusont C., Suriyawongpaisal P. The Association between Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity: A National Survey in Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2002;85(Suppl. 4):S1075–80. [PubMed: 12549779]
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Healthy Eating Worksheets – TheWorksheets.CoM –

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Healthy Eating Worksheets – TheWorksheets.CoM – TheWorksheets.com




Healthy eating worksheet – K5 Learning

Title: Healthy eating worksheet Author: K5 Learning Subject: Grade 1 Science Worksheet Keywords: healthy foods, food, nutrition, human body, science, worksheet, grade 1


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GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS Healthy Eating Pattern 2015-2020

A lifetime of healthy eating can help prevent health problems like obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. Think of every day and meal as an opportunity to make a healthy choice. Want to learn more about how to ind a healthy eating pattern that works for you?


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Nutrition Education Handouts for Adults

Nutrition Education Handouts for Adults . Content List • Easy Ways to Add More Fruits and Vegetables to Your Meals • Easy Ways to Build a Healthy Meal • Easy Ways to Choose Colors of Good Health • Easy Ways to Choose Healthy Portions • Easy Ways to Cook with Beans • Easy Ways to Cut the Salt • Easy Ways to Eat a Variety of Protein • Easy Ways to Eat Enough Fiber


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Healthy Eating Wondrous Worksheets

vegetables or fruit, one portion of a carbohydrate rich food, and a healthy drink. If you want dessert fruit and fruit-containing things can make tasty desserts.


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3 Eating Healthy on a Budget

Handout: Eating Healthy on a Budget and Fruits and Vegetables Lower in Cost Year Round (10–15 minutes) Step 1. Plan ahead before you shop. • Plan meals and snacks for the week according to a budget. • Find quick and easy recipes online. Include meals that will “stretch” expensive food


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Healthy and Unhealthy Foods – Super Teacher Worksheets

Super Teacher Worksheets – www.superteacherworksheets.com Healthy and Unhealthy Foods Healthy Foods Unhealthy Foods Cut out the food pictures. Decide if the food in each picture is healthy or unhealthy. Glue each picture in the correct column. Cut out each picture along the dotted line. grapes ice cream turkey eggs candy bar banana potato chips


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Eating a Balanced Diet – Little Worksheets

Developing healthy eating habits is not as confusing or as restrictive as you may imagine. The first principle of a healthy diet is simply to eat a wide variety of foods. This is important because different foods make different nutritional contributions. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes—foods high in complex carbohydrates,


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STEPPING TOWARD A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

• Find ways to overcome your barriers to eating well and being active • Be creative and have fun eating healthy foods! • Be active throughout the day and choose activities you enjoy • Remember, even the most simple changes can make a difference!


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Healthy Eating Choosing Wellness: Solutions for Wellness …

Solutions for Wellness Workbook 1 Choosing Wellness: Healthy Eating 2 Session 1 Choosing Healthy Eating 4 and Wellness Session 2 a Small Changes approach 13 to Healthier Eating Session 3 Food and our Environment 23 Session 4 Benefits and Barriers 33 of Healthy Eating Session 5 Healthy Eating and Wellness 44 Self-assessment Session 6 What Kind of Hungry 55


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Healthy Food for Life Your guide to healthy eating

Healthy eating is all about choosing the right amounts from each shelf. Many of the foods you eat, such as pizzas, casseroles, pasta dishes and sandwiches, are a combination of the food shelves. For these sorts of foods, you just need to work out


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TheWorksheets.com – Free Worksheets and Printable Activities for Teachers, parents, tutors, and homeschool families – Since 2011.

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Healthy Lifestyles Initiative | Extension Service

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The Healthy Lifestyles Initiatives is a free program that supports healthy 4-H club
meetings across the state. In collaboration with the WVU Extension Healthy Lifestyles
Team and statewide health agencies, programs and curriculum are available such
as Health Rocks!®

The initiative includes Youth Voice, Youth Choice, tobacco cessation and prevention
programs regarding topics such as:

  • Nutrition and Food Prep
  • Physical Fitness
  • Safety
  • Social and Emotional Health
  • Personal Well-being

To learn more, contact Nila Cobb at
[email protected]
nomail.wvu.edu
or
304-720-9883.

4-H Health Officers

This initiative builds leadership skills of youth and promotes the “Health H”. Each
year, youths are selected by their 4-H club members to become a club 4-H Health
Officer. County 4-H Officer Training Schools equip these new leaders with a
4-H Club Health Activity Guide and practice in using it effectively. Training
is held at County Officer Training Schools. Throughout the 4-H club year, health
officers highlight the “Health H” through interactive games, challenges, and discovery
activities with 4-H club members. Families receive handouts that reinforce healthy
habits. Adult 4-H leaders nurture the young Health Officers, helping them to prepare,
organize, and present. Each year, the 4-H Health Initiative focuses on a single
health theme.

There are five health themes in rotation for the 4-H Health Officer Activity Guides:

Mouth smiling to show teeth

Dental Health

The purpose of this program is to increase dental health knowledge and motivate 4-H’ers
and families to try new dental health habits and to improve others.

Girl and Woman cooking food in pot on a stove

Eating Healthy

The purpose of this program is to increase knowledge about healthy eating and motivate 4-H’ers
and families to try new health habits and to improve others.

Four teenages walking together across a field

Healthy Relationships

The purpose of this program is to increase knowledge about healthy relationships and motivate 4-H’ers
and families to try new health habits and to improve others.

2020 – 2021 Theme

Four kids running on a track

Physical Activity

This program aims to increase physical activity health knowledge and motivate 4-H’ers and families
to try new health habits and to improve others.

Swimming mask next to pool

Safety

The purpose of this program is to increase health knowledge around a variety of safety topics and motivate 4-H’ers
and families to try new health habits and to improve others.

To learn more about the 4-H Health Officer program, contact
Jenny Murray at
[email protected]

or
304-293-7993.


4-H Healthy Lifestyles News

4-H Health Ambassador Trainings

Are you ready to become a 4-H Healthy Living Teen Ambassador? Learn more about this
exciting opportunity!  Trainings are coming to your area!

West Virginia 4-H is a recipient of the
Walmart Foundation Healthy Habits grant and the National 4-H Council’s Health
Rocks!®. The Healthy Habits grant requires states to have 4-H Healthy Living Teen
Ambassadors who assist in the facilitation of the nutrition, gardening and physical
fitness activities in a variety of counties and state programs. The Health Rocks!®
grant requires facilitation of the

new
pilot Health Rocks!® curriculum that includes tobacco, alcohol and substance misuse
prevention. 4-H Healthy Living Teen Ambassadors can be current 4-H members
or teens new to 4-H ages 13-18 for Health Rocks!® and grades 8-12 for Healthy Habits.
If you are wondering how to get involved or become a 4-H Healthy Living Teen Ambassador,
this article can help provide you with additional information.

About 4-H Health Ambassador Trainings

How to Help Prevent Heart Disease At Any Age

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multi-generational family on couch

You’re never too young— or too old — to take care of your heart.

Preventing heart disease (and all cardiovascular diseases) means making smart choices now that will pay off the rest of your life.

Lack of exercise, a poor diet and other unhealthy habits can take their toll over the years. Anyone at any age can benefit from simple steps to keep their heart healthy during each decade of life. Here’s how:
 

All Age Groups

No matter what your age, everyone can benefit from a healthy diet and adequate physical activity.
 

  • Choose a healthy eating plan.  The food you eat can decrease your risk of heart disease and stroke.

    Choose foods low in saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium.  As part of a healthy diet, eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, fiber-rich whole grains, fish (preferably oily fish-at least twice per week), nuts, legumes and seeds and try eating some meals without meat.  Select lower fat dairy products and poultry (skinless).  Limit sugar-sweetened beverages and red meat. If you choose to eat meat, select the leanest cuts available.
     

  • Be physically active.  You can slowly work up to at least 2½ hours (150 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., brisk walking) every week or 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., jogging, running) or a combination of both every week. Learn the American Heart Association’s Guidelines for Physical Activity in Adults and in Children.

    Additionally, on 2 or more days a week you need muscle-strengthening activities that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest shoulders, and arms). Children should get at least 60 minutes of activity every day.
     

  • It’s never too early or too late to learn the warning signs of a heart attack and stroke. Not everyone experiences sudden numbness with a stroke or severe chest pain with a heart attack. And heart attack symptoms in women can be different than men.
     

In Your 20s

Getting smart about your heart early on puts you far ahead of the curve. The things you do — and don’t—are a tell-tale sign of how long and how well you’re going to live, said Richard Stein, M.D. “There’s no one I know that said, ‘I felt better being sedentary.

I felt better eating a terrible diet,’” said Stein, a cardiologist and professor of medicine at New York University School of Medicine. “All these things actually make you feel better while they help you.”
 

  • Find a doctor and have regular wellness exams. Healthy people need doctors, too. Establishing a relationship with a physician means you can start heart-health screenings now. Talk to your doctor about your diet, lifestyle and checking your blood pressure, cholesterol, heart rate, blood sugar and body mass index.

    You may also need your blood sugar checked if you are pregnant, overweight or have diabetes. Knowing where your numbers stand early makes it easier to spot a possible change in the future.
     

  • Be physically active. It’s a lot easier to be active and stay active if you start at a young age. “If you’re accustomed to physical activity, you’ll sustain it,” Stein said. Keep your workout routine interesting by mixing it up and finding new motivators.
     
  • Don’t smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. If you picked up smoking as a teen, it’s time to quit smoking. Even exposure to secondhand smoke poses a serious health hazard. Nonsmokers are up to 30 percent more likely to develop heart disease or lung cancer from secondhand smoke exposure at home or work, according to a U.S. Surgeon General report.
     

In Your 30s

Juggling family and career leaves many adults with little time to worry about their hearts. Here are some ways to balance all three.
 

  • Make heart-healthy living a family affair. Create and sustain heart-healthy habits in your kids and you’ll reap the benefits, too. Spend less time on the couch and more time on the move. Explore a nearby park on foot or bike. Shoot some hoops or walk the dog.

    Plant a vegetable and fruit garden together in the yard, and invite your kids into the kitchen to help cook.
     

  • Know your family history. Shake down your family tree to learn about heart health. Having a relative with heart disease increases your risk, and more so if the relative is a parent or sibling.

    That means you need to focus on risk factors you can control by maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, not smoking and eating healthier.

    Also, keep your doctor informed about any heart problems you learn about in your family.
     

  • Tame your stress. Long-term stress causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure that may damage the artery walls.

    Learning stress management techniques not only benefits your body, but also your quality of life. Try deep breathing exercises and find time each day to do something you enjoy.

    Giving back through volunteering also does wonders for knocking out stress.
     

In Your 40s

If heart health hasn’t been a priority, don’t worry. Healthy choices you make now can strengthen your heart for the long haul. Understand why you need to make a lifestyle change and have the confidence to make it. Then, tackle them one at a time. “Each success makes you more confident to take on the next one,” said Stein, an American Heart Association volunteer.
 

  • Watch your weight. You may notice your metabolism slowing down in your 40s. But you can avoid weight gain by following a heart-healthy diet and getting plenty of exercise. The trick is to find a workout routine you enjoy.

    If you need motivation to get moving, find a workout buddy.
     

  • Have your blood sugar level checked. In addition to blood pressure checks and other heart-health screenings, you should have a fasting blood glucose test by the time you’re 45.

    This first test serves as a baseline for future tests, which you should have every three years. Testing may be done earlier or more often if you are overweight, diabetic or at risk for becoming diabetic.
     

  • Don’t brush off snoring. Listen to your sleeping partner’s complaints about your snoring.

    One in five adults has at least mild sleep apnea, a condition that causes pauses in breathing during sleep. If not properly treated, sleep apnea can contribute to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke.
     

In Your 50s

Unlike the emergence of wrinkles and gray hair, what you can’t see as you get older is the impact aging has on your heart. So starting in the 50s, you need to take extra steps.
 

In Your 60s+

With age comes an increased risk for heart disease. Your blood pressure, cholesterol and other heart-related numbers tend to rise. Watching your numbers closely and managing any health problems that arise — along with the requisite healthy eating and exercise — can help you live longer and better.
 

  • Have an ankle-brachial index test. Starting in your 60s, it’s a good idea to get an ankle-brachial index test as part of a physical exam.

    The test assesses the pulses in the feet to help diagnose peripheral artery disease (PAD), a lesser-known cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up in the leg arteries.
     

  • Watch your weight. Your body needs fewer calories as you get older. Excess weight causes your heart to work harder and increases the risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol. Exercising regularly and eating smaller portions of nutrient-rich foods may help you maintain a healthy weight.
     
  • Learn the warning signs of a heart attack and stroke. Heart attack symptoms in women can be different than men. Knowing when you’re having a heart attack or stroke means you’re more likely to get immediate help. Quick treatment can save your life and prevent serious disability.

What Are Another Words For Healthy?

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Healthy Lifestyle Synonym. Healthy lifestyle synonyms and antonyms in the english synonyms dictionary, see also ‘health’,heal’,healthful’,heat’, definition. Synonyms for phrase healthy lifestyle. Find another word for healthy at yourdictionary. Need synonyms for healthy lifestyle? Phrase thesaurus through replacing words with similar meaning of healthy and lifestyle. Find more ways to say healthy, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at thesaurus.com, the see how your sentence looks with different synonyms. What are another words for healthy? Understand healthy lifestyle meaning and enrich your. Classic thesaurus 2016, synonyms for healthy lifestyle, classic thesaurus, viewed 1 october. Best synonyms for ‘healthy lifestyle’ are ‘healthy lives’, ‘health promotion’ and ‘healthy living’. Lifestyle associated with good health outcomes. Find all the synonyms and alternative words for healthy lifestyle at synonyms.com, the largest free online thesaurus, antonyms, definitions and translations resource on the web. Here’s a list of similar words from our thesaurus that you can use instead. If you know synonyms for healthy, then you can share it or put your rating in listed similar words. Healthful (wholesome, salubrious, medicinal >>) good robust well prosperous hearty fit beneficial (useful, helpful, serviceable >>).

Healthy Lifestyle Synonym , Understand Healthy Lifestyle Meaning And Enrich Your.

Keyword Research Research Synonyms Of Any Terms Search Engine Journal. What are another words for healthy? Need synonyms for healthy lifestyle? Healthful (wholesome, salubrious, medicinal >>) good robust well prosperous hearty fit beneficial (useful, helpful, serviceable >>). Synonyms for phrase healthy lifestyle. Find more ways to say healthy, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at thesaurus.com, the see how your sentence looks with different synonyms. Healthy lifestyle synonyms and antonyms in the english synonyms dictionary, see also ‘health’,heal’,healthful’,heat’, definition. Classic thesaurus 2016, synonyms for healthy lifestyle, classic thesaurus, viewed 1 october. Find another word for healthy at yourdictionary. Best synonyms for ‘healthy lifestyle’ are ‘healthy lives’, ‘health promotion’ and ‘healthy living’. Lifestyle associated with good health outcomes. Phrase thesaurus through replacing words with similar meaning of healthy and lifestyle. Here’s a list of similar words from our thesaurus that you can use instead. If you know synonyms for healthy, then you can share it or put your rating in listed similar words. Understand healthy lifestyle meaning and enrich your. Find all the synonyms and alternative words for healthy lifestyle at synonyms.com, the largest free online thesaurus, antonyms, definitions and translations resource on the web.

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BBC NEWS | Health | Healthy living ‘can add 14 years’

admin
Posted in Healthy lifestyle


Flats on an estate

All social classes are at risk from an unhealthy lifestyle

Taking exercise, not drinking too much alcohol, eating enough fruit and vegetables and not smoking can add up to 14 years to your life, a study says.

Research involving 20,000 people over a decade found those who failed on all criteria were four times more likely to have died than those who succeeded.

The findings held true regardless of how overweight or poor they were.

The Public Library of Science Medicine study suggests many could increase their lifespan through simple changes.

The research was carried out by the University of Cambridge and the Medical Research Council in the English county of Norfolk between 1993 and 2006.

Participants were aged between 45 and 79. They were socially mixed although overwhelmingly white, and as far as they were aware at the time, did not have cancer or any heart problems.

Taking off the years

A point was awarded for each of the following: not currently smoking, consuming between one and 14 units of alcohol per week (the equivalent of between half a glass and seven glasses of wine), eating five servings of fruit and vegetables each day and not being inactive.

It means a large proportion of the population really could feel health benefits through moderate changes

Professor Kay-Tee Khaw
University of Cambridge

This last category was defined as either having a sedentary occupation and taking half an hour of exercise a day, or simply having a non-sedentary job like a nurse or plumber.

Not only did the team find that those with four points were significantly less likely to have died over the period than those with none, they also found that a 60-year-old person with a score of zero had the same risk of dying as a 74-year-old with the full four points.

“We’ve know that individually, measures such as not smoking and exercising can have an impact upon longevity, but this is the first time we have looked at them altogether,” said Professor Kay-Tee Khaw, who led the research.

“And we also found that social class and BMI – body mass index – really did not have a role to play.

“It means a large proportion of the population really could feel health benefits through moderate changes.”

BEHAVIOUR AND LIFESPAN

Impact of behaviour on health

The chart above shows survival rates during the follow-up study

Cumulative survival was about 75% for those who did none of the four health behaviours

People who undertook all four behaviours reached 95%

It was in the reduction of deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease where the findings were most pronounced, with those scoring zero five times more likely to succumb than those scoring four.

But there was also a relationship between score and cancer deaths.

While the main analysis excluded people with known disease, the researchers found that those with serious conditions fared better the higher they scored than those who scored lower.

Health campaigners welcomed the study.

“This is good news and shows that by living a healthy life, people can reduce their risk of dying from heart and circulatory disease,” said Judy O’Sullivan of the British Heart Foundation.

“By not smoking, drinking alcohol in moderation, taking regular physical activity and eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, people can improve their chances of living longer.”

A Department of Health spokesperson said: “Everyone has responsibility for their own health, which was highlighted last year when we kickstarted the Small Change, Big Difference initiative to show people that there are simple changes they can make in their lives that will have a direct impact on their health.”

concept of healthy lifestyle – Polish translation – Linguee

admin
Posted in Healthy lifestyle

Calls on the Member States to provide EU citizens with lifestyle information with a view to delaying or

[…]

preventing the onset of

[…]
Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, by promoting the concept of ‘a healthy lifestyle for a healthy brain

eur-lex.europa.eu

4. zachęca państwa członkowskie do informowania obywateli Unii na temat stylu życia, jaki może zapobiegać występowaniu choroby Alzheimera i

[…]

pozostałych demencji lub

[…]
opóźnić je, poprzez upowszechnienie koncepcji „zdrowy styl życia dla zapewnienia zdrowia psychicznego

eur-lex.europa.eu

Continuing initiatives propagating physical activity among youth should be accompanied by the awareness that it is not the idea

[…]

promoted by the consumer society that is being

[…]
pursued, but the concept of leading a healthy lifestyle and promoting health.

zds.kprm.gov.pl

Kontynuacji inicjatyw popularyzujących aktywność fizyczną wśród młodzieży winna towarzyszyć świadomość, że tak naprawdę nie

[…]

chodzi o ideał sprawności fizycznej, który tak mocno

[…]
lansuje społeczeństwo konsumpcyjne, lecz o zdrowy styl życia i zdrowie.

zds.kprm.gov.pl

The Programme should place emphasis on

[…]

improving the health

[…]
condition and promoting a healthy lifestyle and a culture of prevention among children […]

and young people.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Program powinien kłaść nacisk na

[…]
poprawę stanu zdrowia oraz propagowanie zdrowego stylu życia i zachowań profilaktycznych […]

wśród dzieci i młodzieży.

eur-lex.europa.eu

We are confident that our activity in this area will contribute not only to the development of the sports

[…]

disciplines and

[…]
improved performance of our sports contestants, but also will popularize physical activity and promote healthy lifestyle among the Polish people.

gtservices.pl

Jesteśmy przekonani, że nasza aktywność w tym obszarze będzie sprzyjała nie tylko

[…]

rozwojowi dyscyplin i osiąganiu

[…]
kolejnych sukcesów naszych zawodników, ale przyczyni się także do popularyzacji aktywnci ruchowej i zdrowego trybu życia Polaków.

gtservices.pl

Furthermore, promotion of health, prophylaxis, knowledge about the healthy lifestyle, as well as access […]

to services of a

[…]

highly qualified personnel play an essential role in the prolongation of the economic activity of working population and increasing the labour market participation rate of both young and older people.

efs.gov.pl

Ponadto promocja zdrowia, profilaktyka zdrowotna, wiedza o zdrowym stylu życia, jak również […]

dostęp do usług wysoko wykwalifikowanego

[…]

personelu, odgrywają kluczową rolę w wydłużaniu aktywności zawodowej osób pracujących oraz zwiększeniu poziomu uczestnictwa w rynku pracy, zarówno osób młodych jak i starszych.

efs.gov.pl

The point is to

[…]
promote the habits of a healthy lifestyle without interfering […]

with a citizen’s personal choices.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Jej celem jest

[…]
promocja zwyczajów zdrowego stylu życia bez naruszania […]

osobistych wyborów obywateli.

eur-lex.europa.eu

2. it is necessary to assist young people in becoming more responsible for their own health and in raising their self-esteem and increasing their autonomy, in particular by

[…]

raising young people’s

[…]
awareness of the positive effects of a healthy lifestyle and of the risks related to their health.

eur-lex.europa.eu

2. należy pomagać młodym ludziom w stawaniu się bardziej odpowiedzialnymi za własne zdrowie oraz w podnoszeniu ich samooceny i zwiększaniu ich niezależności, zwłaszcza poprzez

[…]

podnoszenie świadomości młodych ludzi na

[…]
temat pozytywnych skutków prowadzenia zdrowego stylu życia oraz zagrożdla zdrowia.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The exchange aimed

[…]
at providing young people with a framework for a healthy lifestyle by focusing on the benefits of participating in outdoor activities.

ec.europa.eu

Wymiana miała

[…]
przygotować młodzież w sposób zorganizowany do prowadzenia zdrowego stylu życia, koncentrując się na korzyściach wynikających z udziału w zajęciach […]

na powietrzu.

ec.europa.eu

Pupils learnt not only factual

[…]

knowledge about what is healthy and what is not, but

[…]
reflected on a broader concept of health, food and culture, […]

and developed skills, competence and motivation to

[…]

do something, together with others, to improve the conditions for healthy eating in their schools/communities/societies.

shapeupeurope.net

Uczniowie posiedli nie tylko wiedzę

[…]

faktyczną na temat tego, czym jest zdrowie a czym nie, ale dokonali też analizy

[…]
szeroko pojmowanej koncepcji zdrowia, żywności i kultury, […]

oraz rozwinęli umiejętności,

[…]

kompetencje i motywację do zrobienia wspólnie z innymi czegoś dla poprawy warunków zdrowego odżywiania w szkołach/wspólnotach/społeczeństwach.

shapeupeurope.net

A broad health concept embraces both the importance of lifestyle and living conditions (Simovska […]

et al, 2006).

hepseurope.eu

Szeroka koncepcja zdrowia uznaje za wne determinanty styl życia i warunki życia (Simovska […]

i in., 2006).

hepseurope.eu

More and more is being done to support

[…]

the staff in giving up smoking

[…]
and to promote the concept of healthy indoor air as a basic […]

right of every citizen and employee.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Coraz więcej się robi na rzecz wsparcia wysiłków

[…]

pracowników, by rzucić palenie, a

[…]
także dla promowania ideału zdrowego powietrza wewtrz pomieszczeń […]

jako podstawowego prawa

[…]

każdego obywatela i pracownika.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The following questionnaire has been produced to ask individuals and organisations to commit a personally selected amount of time, or resource, to spend within their organisations, or

[…]

external bodies, supporting the work of DG SANCO in promoting a campaign to

[…]
raise the awareness of a healthy lifestyle.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Poniższy kwestionariusz powstał w celu zwrócenia się do osób prywatnych i instytucji z prośbą o zadeklarowanie ustalonej dobrowolnie ilości czasu, lub

[…]

środków, przeznaczanych w ramach ich instytucji lub też zewnętrznych

[…]
jednostek na wspieranie działań Dyrekcji Generalnej ds.

eur-lex.europa.eu

1.2.5  The EESC would

[…]
emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle and believes that […]

the Partnership has an important

[…]

role to play in convincing national leaders and bodies active in the public health sector to do more in the Member States.

eur-lex.europa.eu

1.2.5  Komitet podkreśla znaczenie zdrowego stylu życia i  postrzega Partnerstwo […]

jako ważny instrument, za pomocą którego

[…]

można przekonać krajowych decydentów i  podmioty działające w  dziedzinie zdrowia publicznego, że konieczne są większe starania w państwach członkowskich.

eur-lex.europa.eu

3.6.3 It also includes medicinal aspects such as an

[…]
insight into the importance of a healthy lifestyle, physical and mental health […]

and an active lifestyle.

eur-lex.europa.eu

3.6.3 Należałoby także wskazać na implikacje

[…]

medyczne, jak np.

[…]
zrozumienie znaczenia zdrowego stylu życia, zagadnienie zdrowia fizycznego i […]

duchowego oraz aktywnego podejścia do życia.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The Committee would also draw attention to

[…]

the role the media can play in

[…]
raising awareness of a healthy lifestyle and early detection […]

and in improving prevention efforts.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Komitet wskazuje ponadto na rolę mediów w kształtowaniu

[…]
świadomości na rzecz zdrowego stylu życia, wczesnego […]

wykrywania i poprawy profilaktyki.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The concept of the Club derives from the conviction that the world of finance is more than just investments, savings and profits; it is also a certain lifestyle.

bre.pl

Idea Klubu wyrasta z przekonania, że świat finansów to nie tylko inwestycje, oszczędzanie i pomnażanie pieniędzy, ale również pewien styl życia i sposób bycia.

bre.pl

For this reason, the

[…]
EESC supports the concept of flexicurity — i.e. a healthy balance between […]

flexibility and social security

[…]

— as endorsed by the Employment and Social Policy Council on 1 and 2 June 2006.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Komitet popiera zatem ideę „flexicurity”, tzn.wnowagi pomiędzy elastycznością […]

a zabezpieczeniem społecznym, w formie

[…]

przyjętej przez Radę ds. Zatrudnienia i Polityki Społecznej w dniach 1-2 czerwca 2006 r.

eur-lex.europa.eu

As for philosophical views, he was an advocate of

[…]

empiricism and materialism of the French

[…]
Enlightenment and the concept of healthy reason” of the […]

Scottish school of philosophy.

orlen.pl

W poglądach filozoficznych zwolennik empiryzmu i materializmu

[…]
francuskiego oświecenia oraz koncepcji „zdrowego rozsądku” […]

szkockiej szkoły filozoficznej.

orlen.pl

Interventions which are based on

[…]
this positive health promotion concept improve the health by strengthening skills and capabilities of individuals to enable them to take responsibility and increase control over their life and health, for example in the field of healthy eating and physical […]

activity.

hepseurope.eu

Interwencje wykorzystujące pozytyw koncepcję promocji zdrowia prowadzą do jego poprawy przez zwiększenie umiejętności i zdolności człowieka do brania odpowiedzialności za swoje życie i zdrowie, w tym także np.

hepseurope.eu

As a trained fisherman with a passion I would like to convince the people of the region to take a

[…]

different look on the

[…]
ponds – as a gift of nature, whose values can be used to promote eco-tourism, nature education and a healthy lifestyle.

profil.pl

Jako rybak z zamiłowania i wykształcenia pragnę przekonać mieszkańców regionu do innego spojrzenia na

[…]

stawy – jako na dar

[…]
przyrody, którego walory można wykorzystać do propagowania ekoturystyki, przyrodniczej edukacji i zdrowego stylu życia.

profil.pl

I am committing 30 minutes a month to work with schools to

[…]
raise the awareness of a healthy lifestyle and with women’s […]

organisations to help spread the message to parents.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Deklaruję poświęcenie 30 minut miesięcznie pomocy szkołom w

[…]
podnoszeniu świadomości zdrowego stylu życia i organizacjom […]

kobiecym w przekazywaniu tego przesłania rodzicom.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The Club and the Polska Miedź Foundation work together on

[…]
the promotion of sports and a healthy lifestyle among the inhabitants of the Copper Belt.

raportcsr.kghm.pl

Wspólnie z Fundacją Polska Miedź, Klub

[…]

prowadzi działania mające na celu

[…]
zainteresowanie mieszkańców Zagłębia Miedziowego tematyką sportu i zdrowego trybu życia.

raportcsr.kghm.pl

Health promotion implemented by

[…]
propagating a healthy lifestyle and regular control tests, as well as health prevention will contribute to increasing the active participation of older people […]

in the labour market.

efs.gov.pl

Promocja zdrowia realizowana przez propagowanie zdrowego stylu życia i regularnych badań kontrolnych oraz profilaktykę zdrowotną przyczyni się do zwiększenia czynnego […]

udziału osób starszych na rynku pracy.

efs.gov.pl

The concept of poverty which dominates the current Constitutions appears to be only relative (or mainly) applicable to the lifestyle of the single friar, and not […]

to the friar as a member

[…]

of one community and of a universal family, but the single friar in rapport with the local community, and most of all with his own jurisdiction.

francescani.net

Pojęcie ustwa, dominujące w obecnych Konstytucjach naszego Zakonu, wydaje się odnosić tylko (lub tez w większości przypadków) do życia poszczelnego brata, nie […]

uwzględniając zaś faktu,

[…]

że każdy brat przynależy do wspólnoty, do pwowszechnej rodziny.

francescani.net

Although transposition may appear to be simple in theory, in practice there are instances where Community law concepts, which seem clear and precise, have no equivalent in national legal

[…]

terminology (9), or where the

[…]
Community law concept does not include referral to Member States’ law to determine its meaning and scope (10). 3.2 Moreover, when it comes to implementation, Directives permit various degrees of latitude, from […]

non-explicit provisions

[…]

leaving Member States fairly extensive leeway in choosing national transposition measures, to explicit or prescriptive provisions such as definitions, lists or tables detailing substances, objects, or products which require that Member States enact ‘simple transposition measures’ to comply with the provisions of the Directive.

eur-lex.europa.eu

Choć teoretycznie wydaje się to proste, w praktyce zdarza się, że pojęcia właściwe dla prawa

[…]

wspólnotowego nie mają

[…]
odpowiednika w krajowej terminologii prawniczej (9 ) lub tego rodzaju pojęcie nie zawiera odniesienia do prawa danego pstwa członkowskiego, tak aby można było określić jego znaczenie i zakres (10). 3.2 Co więcej, jeśli […]

chodzi o wdrażanie,

[…]

dyrektywy dopuszczają zróżnicowany zakres swobody – niektóre zawierają rozwiązania opcjonalne pozostawiające państwom członkowskim dość dużą swobodę w doborze krajowych środków transpozycji, inne natomiast – wyraźne zapisy lub konkretne dyspozycje (takie jak definicje, wykazy lub tabele wyszczególniające substancje, przedmioty lub produkty), które nakładają na państwa członkowskie obowiązek przyjęcia prostych środków transpozycji w celu zastosowania się do przepisów dyrektywy.

eur-lex.europa.eu

The meeting aimed at increasing

[…]
the social awareness of wind’s potential as a source of clean and renewable energy, and also promoting the topics related to new energy generation technologies, environmental protection and a healthy lifestyle.

gkpge.com

Spotkanie miało na celu

[…]
zwiększenie świadomci społecznej w zakresie potencjału wiatru, jako źróa czystej i niewyczerpalnej energii, a także promowanie tematyki nowych technologii wytwarzania energii, ekologii oraz zdrowego stylu życia.

gkpge.com

This is why in our operations we pay special attention to supporting a healthy lifestyle (responsible consumption), having a frugal approach to natural resources, protecting the environment, tradition, being a good neighbor, and having employees who are ambassadors of our values.

kofola.pl

Realizacja opcji jest związana z wymogiem zatrudnienia bądź pracy Grupy Kofola S.A., a ich wartość godziwa jest ujmowana jako koszt świadczeń na rzecz pracowników z korespondującym z nim zwiększeniem odpowiedniej rezerwy w kapitale własnym w okresie nabywania tych uprawnień.

kofola.pl

Exercise as it relates to Disease/How walking, cycling or being driven to school influences physical activity levels in children

admin
Posted in Healthy lifestyle

This is an analysis of the journal article “Physical Activity Levels of Children Who Walk, Cycle, or Are Driven to School” by Cooper, Anderson, Wedderopp, Page and Froberg (2005).[1]

What is the background to this research?[edit | edit source]

Physical activity is one of the major contributors to a healthy lifestyle, it decreases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and depression.[2] Physical inactivity is estimated to be a factor in 3.2 million deaths globally per year, this is the fourth highest risk factor for global mortality.[2]
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) found that in 2012 only 29% of children are meeting the minimum recommended physical activity levels each day.[3] In 2008 the Australian Bureau of Statistics found that a quarter of Australian children were overweight or obese, a 4% increase from 1995, and obesity levels have continued to increase since.[4][5]
The major problem with these statistics is that overweight and obese children are more likely to continue down this path as they transition into adulthood.[6] These adults will have a greater risk of developing weight related diseases at an earlier age.[6] That is why it is important for children to be physically active and this study suggests that the way child travel to school impacts their physical activity levels.

Where is the research from?[edit | edit source]

The research is from Cooper, Anderson, Wedderopp, Page and Froberg in the American Journal of Preventative Medicine.[1]
The research was conducted in 35 selected schools in the Odense region, Denmark.
The research team has spent a lot of time researching the area of physical fitness and specifically the physical activity levels in children, they are well respected in this field of study.

What kind of research was it?[edit | edit source]

This was a quantitative study, it involved the use of an accelerometer that the participants wore and data was collected from. This made the data more reliable than self reporting which is generally not as consistent and does not hold up as well as quantitative data.

What did the research involve?[edit | edit source]

A total of 590 children were randomly recruited from 35 schools, 323 children (152 boys, 181 girls) fulfilled all the criteria to be a part of the final sample. The children in the sampling group had an average age of 9.7 (SD=0.4). The participants had to wear the accelerometer for any 10 hours between 6am and 10pm each day, however in that time they had to wear it for their journey to school (7am-8am) so that the different journeys could be compared.[1] The data was collected for 4–5 days per week (including 2 weekend days). The information that was collected from the children was;

  • How they travelled to school.
  • Their physical activity volume, pattern and intensity during the whole day.

What were the basic results?[edit | edit source]

The researchers for this study found that children who walked to school were more physically active than those who cycled to school, the active commuting (walking or cycling) children were more physically active than children driven to school. Boys who actively commuted to school stayed more active throughout the day than the boys driven to school, for girls the mode of transport did not have a significant effect on their activity levels during the day. The study also found that the boys who walked to school recorded 34 minutes more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day than boys who were driven to school and girls recorded 40 minutes more. The journey to school contributed to little of the children’s total daily physical activity levels, with most journeys to school being under 10 minutes for active travellers.[1]

How did the researchers interpret the results?[edit | edit source]

The researcher’s interpretation of the results were that walking and cycling to school may be linked with an overall higher level of physical activity in primary school children than those who were driven to school. The researchers had to take into account that for most of the children in the study only 2-3 weekdays were monitored with an accelerometer per week, this could have enhanced the results in some way.
The researchers believe that the findings cannot be explained by the natural differences in the children because the results indicated that the active commuters were less physically active on the weekend than on weekdays. It is suggested in this study that this is because of how the children commuted to school but there isn’t enough evidence to support this claim and more research would have to be done to prove this.[1]

What conclusions can we take from this research?[edit | edit source]

Walking or cycling to school could be an effective way to increase the physical activity levels of primary school aged children, however even with some of the positive results the study found there is not enough evidence to conclude that actively travelling to school will increase physical activity levels. The amount of children that are overweight or obese has been increasing over the past decade[4] and the physical activity levels play an important role in this. A report on the physical activity levels of young people in Australia found that half of all primary school aged children actively travelled to school once per week and less than 25% actively travelled 3 or more times per week.[7] This report is similar, if not worse than the research out of Denmark, meaning that this is also a significant problem for Australian children.[7] The overall aim is for children to have a healthier lifestyle and physical activity through walking or cycling to school could potentially aid in this but more research is required.

The research has shown that actively commuting to school has an influence on the physical activity levels of children, it is important for parents to be informed about these benefits and for them to push their children to walk or cycle to school as much as possible. It is also important for schools to encourage their students to actively travel to school and for the children to be involved with events such as walk safely to school day, which promotes road safety, health and the environment.[8]

For further information concerning the benefits of walking and cycling to school on physical activity; click on the links below:

  1. abcde Cooper, Ashley R; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Page, Angie S; Froberg, Karsten (2005). “Physical Activity Levels of Children Who Walk, Cycle, or Are Driven to School”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 29 (3): 179–84. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.05.009. PMID 16168866. 
  2. ab WHO (2015) Physical activity. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/physical_activity/en/ (Accessed: 31 August 2016).
  3. Health, A.I. of and 2016, W. (2016) Insufficient physical activity (AIHW). Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/risk-factors/insufficient-physical-activity/ (Accessed: 29 August 2016).
  4. ab CHILDREN WHO ARE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE (2009) Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20Sep+2009 (Accessed: 28 August 2016).
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) Physical Activity. Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/4364.0.55.004Chapter1002011-12 (Accessed: 31 August 2016).
  6. ab WHO (2016) Childhood overweight and obesity. Available at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/ (Accessed: 31 August 2016).
  7. abc Tomkinson, G., Olds, T. and Schranz, N. (2015) The Road Less Travelled. Available at: http://www.activehealthykidsaustralia.com.au/siteassets/documents/ahka_reportcard_2015_web.pdf (Accessed: 13 September 2016).
  8. Australia, P.C. of (2016) National walk safely to school day. Available at: http://www.walk.com.au/WSTSD/ (Accessed: 29 August 2016).
  9. Nguyen, T., Handon, M., Nguyen, C., Diluzio, D. and Nguyen, N. (2014) THE 2014 UNITED STATES REPORT CARD ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN & YOUTH. Available at: http://www.physicalactivityplan.org/reportcard/NationalReportCard_longform_final%20for%20web.pdf (Accessed: 31 August 2016).
  10. Government, A. (2014) Australia’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines: Tips and ideas for children (5-12 years). Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ti-5-12years (Accessed: 31 August 2016).


“Здоровий спосіб життя” (TOPIC “Healthy Lifestyle”)

admin
Posted in Healthy lifestyle

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА

8 КЛАС

ТЕМАЗдоровий спосіб життя” (TOPIC “Healthy Lifestyle”)

 

Мета (Objective):

 

Практична (Communicative):

  1. to develop free speaking using personal experience and knowledge on the topic;
  2. to form students’ habits of communication according to the given situations;
  3. to organize pupils’ creative work;
  4. to develop pupils’ speaking, reading, listening skills through various activities.

 

Загальноосвітня (Cultural):

  1. to widen pupils’ knowledge about healthy way of life;
  2. to broaden pupils’ interest to English;
  3. to form and develop the general skills of students in studying (work with handouts, ability to work in different regimes, the ability to overcome difficulties in learning English).

 

Розвивальна (Developmental):

  1. to develop creative imaginations and logical thinking;
  2. to get acquainted with the different aspects of healthy life;
  3. to develop ability to find necessary information in text.

 

Виховна (Educative):

  1. to cultivate pupils’ interest in learning English;
  2. to cultivate a culture of reading and culture of behavior in communication.

 

Тип уроку: урок закріплення знань

 

Вид уроку: бінарний (англійська мова і біологія

 

Міжпредметні звязки: англійська мова, біологія, основи здоровя

 

Обладнання (Materials and equipment):

  1. pictures, sayings and posters for the introduction of the topic;
  2. cards with tasks;
  3. HO with proverbs;
  4. crossword puzzle;
  5. computer (Power Point Presentation).

 

Хід уроку

І. Greeting

T. Good morning! Nice to meet you. I hope, you are in a good mood. Today we have an unusual  lesson. Today we have binary lesson.

Do you know this man?

Yes, this is Freddie Mercury. He was a talented boy. He became a school champion in table tennis at the age of 10. At 12 he became a winner of the Sports Cup. He was fond of painting but most of all he was mad about music. Very gifted and industrious he was always striving for success and became a world famous star. But at the top of his fame he died of AIDS-related pneumonia.

Another world famous rock ‘n ‘roll star is Elvis Presley. His talent, good looks, charisma attracted millions of people to him. Unfortunately, he won’t sing any songs. Do you know the cause of his death? He died from overdosing drugs. I’ve shown you two examples of people who were successful in their life but their bad habits ruined them. So, I think it is easy for you to guess what we are going to speak about at today’s lesson.

P. About Healthy Lifestyle.

ІІ. Актуалізація опорних знань

Учитель біології

Усі  зусилля  розумної  людини  мають  бути  спрямовані  не  на  те,  щоб ремонтувати  та  конопатити  свій  організм,  як  старий  човен,  а  на  те,  щоб створити  собі  такий  спосіб  життя,  за  якого  організм  якомога  менше  б виходив з ладу і набагато рідше потребував налагоджування. (Д. Писарєв)

Маємо нагоду пригадати про негативний вплив шкідливих звичок на організм людини.

Робота в «антипарах». Один учень  пригадує,  які шкідливі звички негативно впливають на організм, інший з пари – яка корисна звичка, навпаки, сприяє здоровому функціонуванню організму.

(Позначення на слайдах ІКТ уражених місць організму людини червоними фішками)

Твердження

1.Куріння сприяє жовтінню зубів, трісканню емалі, кровотечі ясен, з’являється карієс – регулярне чищення зубів.

2.Нікотин, діючи на зоровий нерв, викликає його запалення, внаслідок чого знижується гострота зору – дотримання правил гігієни, забезпечення організму вітамінами групи А – хороший зір.    Артур – демонстрація досліду «Вплив куріння на легені»

3.Внаслідок вживання наркотиків виникає хронічний бронхіт і рак легень – загартовування сприяє підвищенню опірності імунної системи.

4.Алкоїдами або хімічними розчинниками уражається печінка – збалансоване харчування забезпечує нормальне функціонування органів травної системи.

5.Наркотики прискорюють частоту серцебиття, а це перевантаження серцевого м’яза заняття фізкультурою позитивно впливають на стан серцево-судинної системи.

6.Малорухливий спосіб життя (гіподинамія) негативно впливає на серцево-судинну систему – заняття спортом підвищує тонус судин.

7.Вживання наркотичних речовин призводить до погіршення стану шкіри, утворення гнійничкових захворювань – дотримання правил гігієни робить шкіру здоровою та привабливою.

8.Наркотики «вимивають» з організму кальцій, тому наркомани зі стажем беззубі – правильне харчування та перебування на свіжому повітрі забезпечують організм вітамінами групи Д, які сприяють засвоєнню кальцію.

9.Наркотична дія робить людину психічно та фізично залежною, відбувається деградація особистості – навчання і саморозвиток особистості.

10. Алкоголь спричиняє деградацію особистості – самоосвіта сприяє всебічному розвитку людини.

Висновок. Очевидно, що практично всі органи людини уражуються під дією алкоголю, наркотиків, паління  та інших шкідливих звичок. Хіба ви хотіли б, щоб таким чином було уражено саме ваш організм? Ні? То робіть висновки!

Висновки в групах Шкідливі звички перешкоджають формуванню дитячого організму.

 

 

 

 

 

ІІІ. Warm-up

T.  To begin with, let’s brush the English proverbs on the topic. You can see the table with the parts of proverbs. Your task is to match them and read.

1. A sound mind

a) best medicine.

2. An apple a day

b) makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

3. Early to bed and early to rise

c) keeps the doctor away.

4. Good health

d) in a sound body.

5. A good laugh is the

e) Doctor Diet, Doctor Quiet, and Doctor Merry-man.

6. The best doctors in the world are

f) is above wealth.

7. After dinner sit a while,

g) the best medicine.

8. Laughter is

h) after supper walk a mile.

9. Health is not valued

i) are always in a good mood.

10. If your health is good, you

j) till sickness comes.

 

Keys : 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-f, 5-a, 6-e, 7-h, 8-g, 9-j, 10-i.

Thank you for your work.

Do you follow these proverbs?

Do you eat apples?

Do you get up early?

 

ІV. Speaking

T. We have spoken about healthy food, healthy lifestyle. But let’s remind very interesting and useful information.

There are five simple ways for your family to lead a healthy lifestyle and get back on track.

1. Get active each day.

2. Choose water as a drink.

3. Eat more fruit and vegetables.

4. Switch off the screen and get active.

5. Eat fewer snacks and select healthier alternatives.

How to lead a healthy lifestyle

There are five simple ways for your family to lead a healthy lifestyle and get back on track:

1. Get active each day

  • Regular physical activity is important for the healthy growth, development and well-being of children and young people.
  • They should get at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day, including vigorous activities that make them ‘huff and puff’.
  • Include activities that strengthen muscles and bones on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Parents should be good role models and have a positive attitude to being active.

2. Choose water as a drink

  • Water is the best way to quench your thirst – and it doesn’t come with the added sugar found in fruit juices, soft drinks and other sweetened drinks.
  • Reduced fat milk for children over two is a nutritious drink and a great source of calcium.
  • Give kids whole fruit to eat, rather than offering fruit juices that have a lot of sugar.

3. Eat more fruit and vegetables

  • Eating fruit and vegetables every day helps children grow and develop, boosts their vitality and can reduce the risk of many chronic diseases.
  • Aim to eat two serves of fruit and five serves of vegetables every day.
  • Have fresh fruit available as a convenient snack and try to include fruit and vegies in every meal.

4. Switch off the screen and get active

  • Sedentary or ‘still’ time spent watching TV, surfing online or playing computer games is linked to kids becoming overweight or obese.
  • Children and young people should spend no more than two hours a day on ‘small screen’ entertainment. Break up long periods of use as often as possible.
  • Plan a range of active indoor and outdoor games or activities for your children, as alternatives to watching TV or playing on the computer.

5. Eat fewer snacks and select healthier alternatives

  • Healthy snacks help children and young people meet their daily nutritional needs.
  • Snacks based on fruit and vegetables, reduced fat dairy products and whole grains are the healthiest choices.
  • Avoid snacks that are high in sugar or saturated fats – such as chips, cakes and chocolate – which can cause children to put on excess weight.

      Answer the questions.

 

1. What food is healthy to eat?

− Fruit, vegetables, dairy products, nuts, fish, meat − balanced meals.

2. What food do vegetarians eat?

− They eat meatless dishes.

3. What food is unhealthy?

− Chips, crisps, sweets, snacks, fast food.

4. Why is this food unhealthy?

− It is unhealthy, because it contains a lot of fat, sugar, salt.

5. Which drinks are bad for your health?

− Fizzy drinks are.

6. How are these food called?

− They are called junk food.

7. Why do we eat?

− We eat to live, to grow, to have enough energy during the day.

8. What does it mean to eat balanced meal?

− It means to eat products of four main food groups, to eat not too much of the same food.

9. What are these four main food groups?

− They are:

  •     milk and dairy foods (including cheese, yoghurt)
  •     meat and fish (including eggs and chicken)
  •     vegetables and fruit (including green vegetables, root vegetables, fruit juice)
  •     potatoes and cereals (including bread, pasta, rice)

 

V. Reading

T. Read the article and correct the statements below.

Fast Food  is very bad for your health.

(text)

1. Few people eat fast food every day.

2. Fast food is full of vitamins.

3. It is not harmful for our health.

4. Fast food is rather cheap.

5. Burger and chips are full of protein.

Fast Food is very bad for your health

A lot of people eat fast food almost every day because they find it very tasty. Sometimes they eat it because they are busy and don’t have time, or are too tired to cook.

Firstly, fast food such as burgers and chips contain a lot of fat and salt. People shouldn’t eat fast food very often as this is bad for their health. We need to eat a plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables as well as fish and meat.

Secondly, fast food is very expensive. The money some people spend on fast food in one week is enough to buy fresh food for two weeks.

On the other hand, some people say that eating fast food saves time. So it’s a way busy people can avoid cooking during the weekdays.

Although fast food is usually tasty and easy, people should cook their own meals and eat meat which is full of protein and other healthy products, all these kinds of food will make their lives long and healthy.

 

 Keys: 1- a lot of, 2 – cholesterol, 3 – very, 4 – very expensive, 5 – contain a lot of fat and salt.

Учитель біології 

Тренувальна вправа з елементами тренінгу

Чи маєте певні шкідливі звички, які вже негативно впливають на ваше здоров’я? Я пропоную вам написати її  на аркуші. А тепер зіжмакайте аркуш і викиньте у кошик. Що змінилося на вашому робочому столі? Звільнилося місце. Отак і шкідливі звички не лише негативно впливають на організм людини, але й забирають час, гроші. І коли ви їх позбудетесь, а ще краще не допустите формування таких звичок, – ви зробите вибір на користь здорового способу життя.

Перегляд відео «Твій вибір – твоє життя»

Вправа «Замість…» 

 Яку корисну звичку ви маєте бажання сформувати у найближчий час. Напишіть на стікерах і прикріпіть.

Висновок. Є багато звичок, які нам потрібно сформувати, і які сприяють здоровому функціонуванню організму

Speaking

T. As you know junk food is not healthy food. But by the way millions of tons of junk food are sold in the world every day. Junk food trademarks have become the most successful.

Think a little and tell me please. Why do people like to eat junk food?

 

T. Now I’ll give each team a sheet of paper and a list of recommendations which  we should follow or shouldn’t follow to be healthy. Your task is to make Health Code. The first team will tell us what we should do to be healthy and the second team will tell us what we shouldn’t do. Tick the right points in your list.

 

1. Get up early and go to bed early.

2. Wash your hands before eating.

3. Smoke.

4. Watch TV too long.

5. Do sports.

6. Clean your teeth twice a day.

7. Sleep enough.

8. Drink Coke.

9. Take a shower.

10. Skip meals.

11. Surf the Internet all day long.

12. Eat too many sweets.

13. Eat between meals.

14. Eat more fruit and vegetables

 

VІ. Summing – up

T. Let’s do the summing – up what the word health means for us.

     H   honey, heart

     E   eyes exercises

     A   air the room, apple

     L   lettuce, lemon

     T   teeth , take a warm bath

     H   8 hours sleeping, herb tea.

 

I want to thank everybody who took an active part in our work. The best of you get the highest marks. They are…

Let me propose a recipe of Happiness and Health.

 

Учитель біології

Рецептів здорового способу життя багато, але їх замало для відчуття  повного щастя людини. Ми підготували вам універсальний.

 

Учитель англійської мови

Take a cup of kindness.

Add a dash of charity.

Mix with understanding.

Add a bit of civility.

Sprinkle with a good mood.

Serve to everyone.

And you’ll meet many good people.

 

Учитель біології

Візьміть чашку доброти,

Додайте риси благодійності,

Змішайте з розумінням,

Додайте трохи ввічливості,

Присипте гарним настроєм,

Подавайте щедро Всім,

І Ви зустрінете багато чудових людей.

 

T. I wish you to be healthy!

The lesson is over.

See you soon.

        VІІ.  Домашнє завдання

        Ex. 2 (p.46)

 

Література

1. Карп`юк О. Д. Англійська мова 8. Підручник для 8 класу загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів. – ТзОВ «Видавництво Астон»,  2016.

2.Навчальна програма для загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів і спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивчення іноземних мов «Іноземні мови. 5-9 класи». – ВД «Освіта», 2013р.

3. Навчальна програма з біології для 6-9 класів загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів (наказ МОНУ №664 від від 06.06.2012 р., зі змінами затвердженими наказом №558 від 29.05.2015).

4. Остапченко Л. І., Балан П. Г., Серебряков В. В. Підручник для 8 класу загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів. – Київ «Генеза», 2016.

5. Відеоматеріали FruitIdioms  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v WVbSX8QVNI&list=RDxWVbSX8Q VNI t=7

4. Матеріали сайту http://www.genkienglish.net/cd7.htm

5. Інтернет ресурси: